Efficiency, effectiveness, and flexibility are vital to a well-designed information system. They help the system meet the main objective of providing appropriate information to users. Efficiency is the comparison between what is produced and achieved while considering the same amount of resources (Laudon & Laudon, 2011). It aids in increasing productivity while also reducing operation costs brought about by the end user. Effectiveness on the hand is the level at which objectives are met and the degree to which aimed problems are solved. It aims at making an information system user satisfactory thus minimizing the amount of clerical work that may arise (Kim & Solomon, 2011). In essence, it refers to doing the right thing so as to resulting to timely and accurate information thus attracting end-users to an information system and increasing levels of satisfaction. Flexibility is the strength of a system to tackle possible internal or external changes that affect value delivery while being timely and cost effective. It dwells on saving time meaning it allows an information system the ability to handle different tasks thus being attractive.
The concept of “Single user view” is an approach to data management promoted by a flat file environment in which end users lay claim to their data files as opposed to sharing the files with other users (Bunting, 2011). As such, the data files become structured, formatted, and arranged according to the preference of either the owner or a primary user of the given data. The problem with such a structure is the fact that it may omit data attributes considered useful to other users leading to the failure of successful integration of data across the board (Kimball & Ross, 2011). This is mainly affected by the idea that should multiple users want to access the same data for different needs; they are forced to retrieve separate data sets that are structured to their preference thus preventing successful integration. Moreover, this lack of integration of information ultimately results to data redundancy which is the replication of the same information in many files that also contributes data storage, data updating and currency of information problems.
John should report his immediate supervisor to the relevant authorities. He is expected to uphold appropriate ethical business practices at all times. It is also important to note that in upholding ethical code, managers, regardless of position are also mandated to help others uphold the same (Trevino & Nelson, 2010). He should not be blackmailed by the fact that he is junior to his supervisor and should understand that ethics dictates that we meet the task of doing the right thing even if there are negative repercussions to be accrued. This is because ethics calls for two issues; the ability to discern what is wrong with what is right and the ability to act such that one is committed to standing for what is right (Ferrell & Hartline, 2014). As such, whether in an ethical dilemma, John should be guided by an unwavering sense of personal ethics and do the right thing by telling out his supervisor for participating in an unethical manner. In essence, ethics is opting to do the right thing even in situations with other options.
Firms chose to have separate departments for warehousing and shipping mainly as a control mechanism since it allows for checks and balancing (Porter & Siggelkow, 2011). The main task of a warehouse is to offer the appropriate environment for stocking up merchandise that needs safety keeping. Becuase it handles items existing within the warehouse; it also referred to as “on inventory” (Cabral, 2000). Shipping on the other side functions to focus on incoming and outgoing transactions which are the surrounding activities of inventory. In smaller organizations, receiving and shipping activities tend to be similar to those of warehouse activities however in large organizations the departments need to be separated to cater to the respective tasks separately thus aiding in any form of obstruction that may occur in loading and truck management areas. However, practicing this leads to the creation of more paperwork mainly because daily reports need to be generated and sent to the distributor. The distributor is then able to operate as required. As such, despite the much paperwork, it is advantageous since it minimizes fraudulent activities.
The objective of eliminating the receiving function is largely to minimize the time covered for goods to arrive at the production area (Womack & Jones, 2010). The receiving function works to review incoming goods to ascertain that they are authorized according to available documents and that they are of right quality and quantity. The receiving staff in the same regard also gets to enter receipts into a given inventory database as a necessary measure. The problem with this function, however, is the fact that it can end up consuming a lot of time thus delaying the floor of goods to the area of production from the receiving dock hence the need for elimination. There are, nonetheless, some accounting/auditing problems that need to be tackled for elimination to take place (McEachern, 2014). These issues include the reduction of the number of suppliers, ensuring each vendor handles one time at a go, taking into account Pre-Agreed terms involved in the trade and lastly developing a system to directly pay suppliers.
- Bunting, S. (2011). Encase computer forensics – the official ence: Encase certified examiner study guide. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons Ltd.
- Cabral, L. M. B. (2010). Introduction to industrial organization. Cambridge, Mass. [u.a.: MIT Press.
- Ferrell, O. C., & Hartline, M. D. (2014). Marketing strategy: Text and cases. Mason, OH: South-Western/Cengage Learning.
- Kimball, R., & Ross, M. (2011). The data warehouse toolkit: the complete guide to dimensional modeling. John Wiley & Sons.
- Kim, D., & Solomon, M. (2011). Fundamentals of information systems security. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
- Laudon, K. C., & Laudon, J. P. (2011). Management information systems (Vol. 8). New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
- McEachern, W. A. (2014). Macroeconomics: A contemporary introduction.
- Porter, M., & Siggelkow, N. (2011). Contextuality within activity systems and sustainability of competitive advantage. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 22(2), 34-56.
- Trevino, L. K., & Nelson, K. A. (2010). Managing business ethics. John Wiley & Sons.
- Womack, J. P., & Jones, D. T. (2010). Lean thinking: banish waste and create wealth in your corporation. Simon and Schuster.