Distinguish between relative and absolute poverty (see Poverty lecture). How does the population of a low-income country such as Ethiopia differ from that of a high-income nation such as the United States in terms of these concepts?
Relative poverty encompasses the core human needs, and absolute poverty is a lack of one or more of the basic necessities that could endanger a human life. There are societies in America that face relative poverty. However, the wealth of the nation typically prevents absolute poverty. In contrast, Ethiopia is a low-income country whose society is confronted more with absolute poverty than it is with relative poverty. There are not enough resources to provide for the basic needs of the majority.
Which theory—modernization theory or dependency theory—do you think better explains the extent of global stratification in the world? Why?
Both theories offer an explanation for global stratification; however, the dependency theory seems to provide a better explanation based on its focus on structural factors. External influences on national development policies include cultural, economic, and political factors. Often the wealthy states build off of the expense of the underdeveloped ones. Modern business practices outsource labor to poor locations in efforts to save more money and build on the existing wealth. The dependency theory best explains the extent of global stratification.
Do you think the people living in the United State have a responsibility for poverty in much of the world? Why? Do people living in the United States have the ability to reduce global poverty? If so, how?
Each individual that lives in the United States or any wealthy state should consider their responsibility for addressing poverty in the world. There is such an excess of waste and personal excess that can be given to those who have no resources. People in the United States can reduce global poverty by doing their part to give to poor states who need the necessary resources. Donations and involvement in an organization that addresses world poverty are a great place to start in reducing global poverty. How do patterns of gender inequality differ in low-income nations compared to high-income countries?
Gender of inequality is far more prevalent in low-income nations than it is in high-income countries. The underdeveloped states leave individuals dependent on their male counterparts for survival. They do not have the options, and they have not progressed to a state where gender equality is present. High-income countries have battled for gender equality and have advanced significantly, a luxury that many low-income nations have not yet been able to pursue.