The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Standardized procedures of the TAT focus specifically on the delivery of a comprehensive personality test for infants and young children as they mature and grow older. It relies on subtle psychopathological processes including the use of place cards that allow children to inter-relate their thoughts and thinking processes with more graphical references. For example, the clinician will present the subject with a number of different thought provoking graphics that allow them to better understand the neurological and psychological responses of the subject (Rossini & Moretti, 1997).
The behavior domain sampled by the test is personality invoked responses and behaviors of children only, which clinicians may struggle in normal practice to understand. There are further no well established scores or categories as this is designed to be an individualized test, that is specific to the particular child rather than a broad array or category of children grouped together (Rossini & Moretti, 1997).
Norms and standards for this particular test are highly debatable and also unclear even in the 21st century as a number of different academics and researchers attempt to determine how it can be standardized rather than individualized as it currently is. Predictions of non-test behavior are also unclear as again, the test is more individualized with no clear guidance on how it should be delivered across the United States and also worldwide (Rossini & Moretti, 1997). The use of the test is, however, clearly defined and looks at the presentation of a number of behavioral scenarios through the use of place cards and more graphical references, which in turn, cater to a broader audience rather than children who may be more visually inclined (Rossini & Moretti, 1997).
Ethical considerations for the test focus on what is deemed to be acceptable throughout differing socio-economic classes and how children and subjects with special needs can respond to this test particularly if they have ongoing issues with graphical learning.
The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI2)
The standardized procedures for the MMPI2 focus on addressing malingering and exaggerated emotional and behavioral symptoms associated with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and other conditions that can develop after certain experiences. The main procedure involved with the test includes the use of a single validity scale known as a response chart, which can assist health professionals in assessing the severity of symptoms presented to a clinic (Efendov, Sellbom, & Bagby, 2008). This further allows the generation of a detailed report that can lead to more effective treatment options for clinicians. The patient is asked a series of questions in relation to the event that has caused much of their stress and their emotional and behavioral responses are used to provide an accurate measurement along the validity scale (Efendov et al, 2008).
The behavior domain sampled by the test is stress and emotional responses to particular situations seen to be abnormal and not regularly experienced on a day to day basis. Furthermore, this test relies heavily on scores and categories with the validity measurement providing a comprehensive scale, known as the PTSD scale or integral, which many clinicians used. This can be a simple scale from 1-10 or another scale that relies on decimal places to more accurately assess slight variations in PTSD and other emotional and behavioral responses (Efendov et al, 2008).
Norms and standards for the test look at the client scoring 0, which would indicate that they have little to no PTSD symptoms and would be experiencing a temporary lapse in emotional and behavioral responses to every day events. Furthermore, the prediction of non test behavior has also been established within this test and would include using the highest score on the scale to indicate that the subject requires further research and attention (Efendov et al, 2008). The use of the test is broad and it covers a wide range of behaviors, which vary with respect to behavioral, emotional and also physical responses. For example, some of the variables of the test include violent, psychotic and mental impairment/behaviors.
Ethical considerations related to the test include the varying experiences of subjects and the relationship between their cultures and behaviors, which may be quite sensitive to approach and treat by particular clinicians.
- American Psychological Association (2010). Standard 9: Assessment. In Ethical principles of
psychologists and code of conduct: 2010 amendments.
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http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/the-importance-of-measurement-in-the-research-process.html#lesson Accessed on 3rd January 2016.
- Efendov, A. A., Sellbom, M., & Bagby, R. M. (2008). The utility and comparative incremental validity of
the MMPI-2 and trauma symptom inventory validity scales in the detection of feigned PTSD. Psychological Assessment, 20(4), 317-326. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0013870
Accessed on 3rd January 2016
- Hansen, C. (2013, July). Psychological tests and measurements [PowerPoint slides]. Paper presented at
Doctoral Residency, Keiser University Graduate School, Fort Lauderdale, FL.
- Rossini, E. D., & Moretti, R. J. (1997). Thematic apperception test (TAT) interpretation: Practice
recommendations from a survey of clinical psychology doctoral programs accredited by the american psychological association. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 28(4), 393-398. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.28.4.393 Accessed on 3rd January 2016.