The nervous system comprises three main functions: sensory, interpretative, and motor. It is made up of a web of cells (neurons). These specialized cells work to transmit signals and co-ordinate actions all over the body. The nervous system coordinates both involuntary and voluntary activity.
The main organization of the visceral sensory system involves monitoring visceral organ activity 24/7. This enables the autonomic motor neurons to carry out necessary adjustments to make the
visceral functions optimal.

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Sensory nerves pick up information from both the outside environment and within the body. They then transmit this data to the CNS (central nervous system). This sensory data to delivered to the CNS where it is clarified and interpreted. The motor nerves transport data between the CNS and body’s glands and the muscles.

The CSF (Cerebrospinal fluid) comprises a liquid which surrounds and fills the body. It acts to prevent shock and injury. It is mainly generated within the brain’s ventricles.

The retina is positioned close to the optic nerve. It consists of a fine tissue layer which forms the lining of the interior of the back part of the eye. Its function is to process the light which has been focused by the lens via light sensitive photo-receptor cells (which are able to detect light and color intensity), transform the former to neural signaling, and then transmit these signals to the brain via the optic nerve in order to generate visual recognition.

The heart comprises an intricate muscle which pumps blood via 3 circulatory system sections: the coronary, the pulmonary, and the systemic. The coronary circulation is integral to the heart. It receives blood straight from the aorta (the main artery) which derives from the heart. In the case of systemic and pulmonary circulation, the heart needs to pump blood to the other areas of the body and the lungs, respectively. The Blood flows through the heart via 2 big veins: the superior and inferior vena cava. It unloads blood from the body which is poor in oxygen, into the heart’s right atrium. As the latter contracts, the blood moves into the right ventricle via the tricuspid valve, which is open.

  • Hall, Susan, J. et al. (2014). Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology. US: GW Publisher.