1. What is the scientific term for the study of animal behavior?
2. When does “imprinting” usually occur?
Imprinting usually occurs within a few hours or days after birth.
3. Of the fixed or inherited behavioral traits, give examples of the following types of behavior in domesticated farm animals: (a) gregarious-Herding together and avoiding isolation
(b) social-Establishing dominance order within a group
c) sexual- Mating calls and dances, and giving off scents/odors
4. How can the farm manager take advantage of the instinctive eliminative behavior of some domesticated species?
Farm managers can take advantage of the instinctive eliminative behavior by creating developments that will replace the action of animals and increase productivity. For example, the egg incubator replaced the need for laying on eggs so the trait was eliminated.
5. What three levels of the nervous system can initiate a reaction to a stimulus?
The spinal cord, the lower brain, and the brain cortex.
6. Explain how the field of vision and depth perception of livestock and humans differ.
Animals with eyes on the side of the head have a 360 degree field of vision. Rectangular pupils give a wider visual field and animals, such as eagles, have a large field of binocular vision due to the frontal placement of their eyes. Grazing animals lack a tapetum, and certain species can sense light in the ultraviolet range.
7. Can animals distinguish color? If so, which species.
Certain wavelengths of light can be perceived by animals. It is believed that swine and poultry can see all colors, while animals like horses cannot see the color red.
8. Compare the sense of smell in livestock to that of humans.
Livestock have a more defined sense of smell than humans. All livestock have the vomeronasal organ that enables them to detect odors that humans cannot.
9. Which species of animals often prefer to lie in contact with each other?
10. What are good guidelines for animal reward and punishment?
The reward or punishment must be done immediately after the behavior, and must often be repeated several times. Retraining or reinforcement must also be done on occasion as the animal forgets, but one must keep in mind that emotional arousal determines what an animal learns and how quickly.
11. Which is most likely to be effective in communication with animals, the human voice or visual cues?
Visual cues are more likely to be the most effective. Many animals are not able to decipher the spectrum of sounds in a human voice, and often rely on visual cues.
12. To best utilize visual perception of cattle, how should handling facilities such as chutes be designed?
Handling facilities should be designed with the animal’s point-of-view in mind. Open spaces are important as they allow animals to see what is happening in front of them as well as behind them in order to prevent hesitation and decrease fear.
13. Which is the best strategy when moving animals in with other animals, one at a time or several? Explain.
Moving several animals in at a time is the best strategy because this allows the group to establish dominance order. If animals are moved in one at a time, the group will have to establish the order each time. Establishing order can be difficult in large groups, so it is best to move in animals in small quantites.
14. Which domesticated species experience very little deep sleep?
Mature cattle and sheep experience very little deep sleep due to the contractions of the rumen and reticulum requiring the sternum to be held in place.
15. Is most farm and sexual behavior polygamous or monogamous?
16. Name situations where the environmental surroundings as in confinement housing might increase the incidence of abnormal behavior in animals. What are some abnormal behaviors?
If animals are placed in confined or overcrowded spaces then abnormal behaviors may take place due to lack of space or boredom. Abnormal behaviors include excessive licking or chewing on stalls and the biting of tails and ears.