Communication is an important entity; whether it’s verbal or non-verbal, it should be perfectly laid down to competently meet the rapid and continuous changes in the world’s market demand as a driver of Elaboration Likelihood Model. The same communication brings in the essence of persuasion which frequently is given a negative perception just as its meaning depicts. Persuasion itself comes in different forms; persuasion to influence, persuasion to convince, and persuasion to reinforce attitude. In a much simpler form, persuasion is an interaction between the chief processor and the consumer in a way that none is violated. With this in mind, it is up to the producer to put up flexible strategies which will give out a dynamic reinforcement to whatever situation and thus whence the think different logo of the Apple comes in.
Apple Company: Philosophy, target, and core paradigm
Think different uses the elaboration likelihood model to put on the emphasis of how consumers of different attitudes are convinced, moulded, designed and strengthened by the convincing art of communication or rather argument. On their use on the same, the founder had done a thorough research on the consumer’s perception to different messages that likely tend to be persuasive. Thus, the high and the low elaboration chips in where the high needs an elaborate and factual explanations while the low can frequently be influenced by an array of any other factors (Apple Computer, 2004).
Apple is among the very first companies to venture into the field of marketing with the aim of effectively and efficiently reaching their target. Thus, when the company’s marketing department came in with a branded ad notion to reach male consumers, which of course is their core target, the company flourished. The reason behind this is that men tend to be more technological as compared to women, which certainly is a contradicting thought, as women are known as effective organizers (Apple Computer, 2004).
The status in which Apple tags along is the first strategy which they used, which is to cognitively convince its consumers on the importance of the having their products be of a certain quality. The target class is a group of prestigious persons who are free minded and are ready to venture into different risks, such as starting a business. In addition, the technology appealed to those who might be interested in the arts. The technology behind it is the chief influential agent on the efficient quality outcome (O’Grady, 2009).
The young stars or celebrity narrative stories is what has influenced young people to “think” Apple wise as the enticement it comes with persuades the user that if such a person made it in life via the Apple advertisement, then they, too, may be able to “make it” as a result of the technology. This market strategy is communication, which should be given a lot of weight as it is the core for the succession of agendas. The various images used are what draws the attention of different consumers to entice them into reading the entire advertisement which categorically is persuasive and very convincing, outlaid to give out sense. The persuasion all the way leads to the outcome that their products will bring to you and change your life in the manner in which it has for the young and cool males they put on display, enticing to the youths to look the same (Perse, 2001).
The communication strategy applied by Apple is to bring a good rapport to their customers and create a lasting relationship which is unbreakable, as they used a bottom up strategy to lay down facts and ideas (O’Grady, 2009).
Elaboration Likelihood Model
“Think different” insinuates that there are so many ways in which a person can tackle and handle different situations. In the case of Apple, if a given form of technology is not working for you, then sort to a different one and so on until you come up with that which suits best your line of best-fit. Facts and important information laid together through the advertisement are what gives the consumer the urge to follow up with the company as a loyal customer. The message is powerful, the manner in which you outsource is very important as the receivers have different ways of perceiving it. In order to convince the consumer or rather the user, Apple Company had to use the picture of Mohammad Ali, a famous champion boxer and activist with a good background perfect for a detailed message that might capture the reader’s attention. The first appearance of this guy’s image is appealing to the eye and subsequently brings the persuasion to read the entire article which of course is convincing and true. In all the various advertisement campaigns, the designer has to come up with a creative idea which will capture many people’s mind and change their opinions ultimately (O’Grady, 2009).
Think Different Advertisement Poster
The entire advertisement is free since it is made to persuade through the strategic communication but not to force the customer to buy the product. It is the will of the customer to decide whether or not to buy the product. Under persuasion, elaboration of the content is advised towards the outcome change in attitude which is via the Central persuasion versus the peripheral persuasion (O’Grady, 2009).
Central persuasion is where an extensive embellishment is given out by a person either written or voice coded in a manner that is likely to draw the attention of the receiver to listen and contemplate on the relayed message all the same. In such scenarios, the persuaders employ facts and sturdy rational urgings which undoubtedly persuade the receiver on the logics of having something or possessing something. After the intense thought by the receiver on the logics of the message, dependability, edifice and the extent to which the very given message convinces him or her, she or he will decide to receptively change attitude towards the same for an ultimate successful result. Basically what convinces a person or a receiver to go by something is the ultimate benefits that he or she will receive. Thus, the credentials used in any form of a marketing campaign should have the notion of creating a central form of persuasion in order to create a final and long-lasting rapport. The factual information is highly processed and understood by the receiver, bringing the high likeliness to know much more about the information on the display and thus a positive and endeavour attitude to the given product, an attitude that cannot be changed regardless of the situation. This kind of receiver got an ultimate idea that can never fade and cannot be convinced otherwise against the product under question (BriñolRichard & DeMarree, 2007).
On the other hand, peripheral persuasion is when the receivers are more attracted to the external appearances or rather phony characteristics of the given product under the ads rather than the logics portrayed in the written or recorded message. The information is displayed by the marketer, the receiver under the peripheral path to persuasion tend to incompetently process and digest the information, leading to kind of low enthusiasm to still get more about the information thus bringing a poor outcome in which the receiver may have a transient attraction or rather arrogance towards the very given product (BriñolRichard & DeMarree, 2007).
For the most part, this kind of behaviour is brought about by how attractive the cover or the person portraying the message is or the level of popularity of the person in the ad. The outward super facial characteristics other than the main agenda are there for the things referred to as peripheral persuasions. This group of people often do not have the time to ponder so hard upon a certain issue and that is why they are easily convinced by the outward appearances. Such reactions and actions are not long-lasting and thus are for a short period of time which are vulnerable to frequent vicissitudes. The picture of Muhammad Ali is a great explanatory example of this form of persuasion. He was indeed a well-known boxing celebrity whose fame could capture anyone’s attention completely and be convinced that indeed that is the person he or she got to support. On another note, a person’s image may be the sole reason as per to why you have to go through a certain article or ad as you are assured that you will not be disappointed with the message or even you are sure of the fact that you will know much more about this person (BriñolRichard & DeMarree, 2007).
The decisive choosing comes in from the way in which the target or the receiver is motivated and the receiver’s own ability to listen or read tentatively for a better result. The decision a receiver or a target makes is highly dependent on both ability and self-motivation. In a way, a person who possesses both the two virtues is likely to follow the central persuasion way, unlike the person who lacks them both will definitely go the peripheral persuasion way. Thus, the decision is the target but all the same, the marketer has to try by all means to convince the target through their ads that whatever route or way they are going to employ is worthwhile their efforts (BriñolRichard & DeMarree, 2007).
The ABCs of attitude
Affect, behaviour, and cognition come in handily in the elaboration likelihood model and clearly shows its impacts under the peripheral and central persuasion. The persuasion applicable is mostly influenced by a person’s emotions which are interrelated with the attitude the receiver or the target has towards a certain thing or product. A person in high or rather good moods will definitely be very positive about life, eager to learn and thus he or she will choose the central persuasion path rather than a low person with bad mood who does not see the importance of paying attention will use a short cut, to get the message. The effect is the important form of the attitude, the influence in which the ad will have to the target is what really will persuade her or him to pay attention. Cognition, on the other hand, is the target understands of the ad under the display. This scenario may be in the case where the target had initially been in contact with the same ad or have much more information about the ad and thus the attraction will make him or her to go deeply into the ad and even get the product under the ad. This is mainly due to the fact that the target has now known the significance of the product; the path chosen will definitely be the central persuasion. Behaviour, on the other hand, is the reaction that a given person or a given receiver has towards a certain thing. Behaviour can be provoked by the initial experiences that the receiver had had in the past. Behaviour determines the kind of attitude that a person may have towards a certain thing while the attitude is what will determine the path that the receiver will take. If the behaviour is not competent, then probably the path that will be taken will be on the peripheral while if the behaviour of the person plus the initial experiences is good then the person will go the central way. Therefore, all the marketers are advised to be creative enough and balance the background information with the superficial ones in order to attract both the customers depending on what is on display (Razza, & Paschoarelli, 2015).
Cognitive perception of the message
Cognitive dissonance theory is a strategy that very many marketers use to win the heart of their customers and attain their initial set goals. This strategy ensures that the ultimate goal is achieved and the consumer gets the message, it must be unavoidable criteria. Different groups of different ethnicities have different views and beliefs concerning certain products and that are what the marketing manager of the Apple Company realized in his research in the market needs, and decided that it’s worth of a time to convince and change the mind of the users of Apple products. The challenge is what brought in the “think different” logo. That change subjected the company to the perception that it in fact did not care about the thoughts of customers about the nature of the brand (Razza, & Paschoarelli, 2015).
The essence of persuasion is to make the receiver uncomfortable, knowing that what he or she has believed on or thinking is not true and he or she needs to change her or his ideologies. In this manner, the message is passed and received by very many people who will, therefore, be convinced to buy the product willingly (Deutsch, Gawronski & Strack, 2006).
The elaboration displayed on the various products is what convinces the high and the low receivers as they are true facts that do not violate the customer’s desires and demands. Through the persuasive way in which the ads are displayed, the consumers are hence prone to changing their initial attitude to the given product.
The appropriateness of the message under the display is another important entity when it comes to the receiver’s likelihood to purchase the very given product under the display. A person will likely be attracted towards something that he or she thinks is relevant to what course she or he is undertaking. The urge in which the receiver needs the product, as well as the additional information or benefits that the product will add to his or her project be it (businesses, research and work), is what will persuade the receiver to read more about it and understand the benefits that the product comes with. The caption to read the message will also depend on the receiver used to the product and what outcome the product brings to her or him. One might consider the example of a person who only uses the computer or the gadget to interact with family and other people on the social platforms which he or she will not be persuaded to read the message because of the already formed opinion. This attitude is reflective of, “After all, I only use it for any other benefits which don’t even help me, I can do without it or even just use the current gadget that I am having.” This kind of person, of course, will fall under the peripheral path as the display is enough for her or for him and he needs no more information. Compared to a business man who needs a machine with a better processing power, something that can enlighten up his or her work, on seeing a certain ad displaying information on certain new models of machines, he or she will have to go dig into the actual messages under display, process the provided information and digest it inside his or her brain and make sure that he or she gets this machine. This person has taken the central path and has been persuaded to buy the machine because of the intense background information provided by the marketer. The marketers are always cautious in that they explain all the details and information without adding irrelevant issues in order to maintain and appreciate their customer’s interest as well as protect their relationships with the customer (Martens, Jennings, & Jennings, 2007).
The urge to know more about a certain product may be another element that persuades a person to dip deeper into the message. There are a group of receivers on the other end who are the curious types, they are always on the path to be enlightened. They have the urge to have more information and of course learn much more about certain things more so in the case of the computers. This very curiosity is what will make this given receiver who doesn’t have the urge of getting a new computer reads the message and be convinced that indeed he or she needs an update to the current booming model of the computers or gadgets (Martens, Jennings, & Jennings, 2007).
How motivated is the person or the receiver assigned a certain duty of window shopping on different computers or software to make work easier for a certain organization? An aggressive person with the interest of knowing much about the new models is always the right person. However, some stakeholders’ interest will not be persuaded by the outward appearances of the latest model but the processing power that this latest model has over the current one under use. For a person to purchase something, he or she got the authority to make the right resolution having it at the back of his or her mind that the rest of the team or employees are relying on him or her because of her or his prowess. Thus following the central route to persuasion, he or she will analyse the message, digest it and indeed be convinced that it is the right model unlike when the duty was to be done in a group of employees who of course got different attitudes to information, likely the peripheral path would have been followed (Films Media Group,, & TV Choice Productions, 2016).
Individuals or receivers are likely to dig into a message from the marketer depending on the urge or the need they are in. A person will only be interested most of the time to read a certain ad more so if it displays something that he or she has been looking for or urgently needs. The urgency involved is what will determine the path in which an individual will follow or take in regards to persuasion. If the product is in high demand and its usage is paramount, the receiver will follow the central part in the processing the information under the display and so is when the product under display is not urgently needed, the peripheral way will be it just for the rough idea (Bartunek, Rynes, & Ireland, 2006).
The boldness that a receiver has towards a certain company will also determine the likeliness of the consumer to read the message from the marketer. A person with a liking attitude to a certain company; example the Apple company will automatically read more about the ads from Apple whenever he or she sees it. The flexibility of this various attitudes is also highly related to the urge or curiosity to learn more about certain products from certain companies (Deutsch, Gawronski & Strack, 2006)
Organizations are responsible for each and every ad that they post. With this in mind, Apple must know the significance of communication as it is the basic entity of the whole model. The path in which the marketers need to use in making their receivers or users attracted to the various ads should also be revised as peripheral persuasion tends to be temporary and always subjected to change.
‘Think different’ marketing campaign was created when the company faced extended decline and seemed not to cope with its major competitor on the domestic market. The campaign was based mostly on the peripheral persuasion – slogan ‘think different’ appealed to consumers’ self-identification; as Steve Jobs used to say, “you can change life, you can influence it, you can build your own things that other people can use.” Jobs detected the target audience as people who need to be inspired by technology, who is smart and ambitious enough to constantly create something new. Although such approach was emotional rather than objective or informative, it appeared to be successful. ‘Think Different’ campaign helped the company to create a strong connection with its targeted audience.
Apple’s campaign combines effectively central and peripheral persuasion. Since Apple’s products belong to the upper-middle price category, potential consumers need to be properly informed of Apple products’ advantages. Instead of merely listing core technical advances of its product, the company developed its own philosophy in order reveal its targeted audience and explain its mission. Apple didn’t need to persuade its customers that they should buy the product immediately, but just suggest them a useful tool to achieve whatever they wanted to. Therefore, the emotional part of the message was not something superficial, something that ‘decorated’ the technical advantages of the product. Instead, it represented the entire purpose of all these technical achievements: “we are working for those who are not afraid of changes – losers, rebels, creators, thinkers. If you consider yourself one of them, you may be interested in our products.” Instruments of peripheral persuasion prevailed, as Apple attempted to associate its products (and therefore its potential users) with successful people. Their message would encourage customers to ‘think different’ and persuaded that everyone could achieve success with the help of Apple devices. Such an approach would be unsuccessful without high quality of the product. When there are few strong competitors selling a product with equal characteristics, peripheral messages would play the vital role.
The key to a successful message is the rational combination of the ABC elements (affect, behavior, and cognition). Affect is the emotional perception of the message. Apple achieved great success in making a first impression. The first iPhone presentation was intentionally held in secret as the managers were confident that their innovative product does not need any promotional efforts. That was the time when the advertizing campaign appealed to consumers’ cognition. After some time, competitors started to adopt Apple’s technologies, so there had to be something else to keep the targeted audience. With top technologies and users’ trust, Steve Jobs understood that creating an emotional connection with the brand is needed. ‘Think Different’ campaign created the lacking ‘affect’ element and also appeared to be a good response to IBM’s ‘Think’ slogan.
The probability for a potential user to follow central or the peripheral path depends on demand for a particular product. If a product is of urgent need and value (like corporate software), the consumer will probably be more reasonable in his or her purchasing decision and follow the central path. Otherwise (when purchasing a device for personal use), the peripheral motivation is more common. Therefore, Apple’s campaign was more rational and informative when it came to products of higher demand.
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