A term coined by two researchers Peter Salovey and John Mayer, Emotional Intelligence refers to the ability of one to recognize, understand own emotions as well as understanding and influencing that of others (Campion et al., 2011). Strong emotional intelligence skills are required today because they enable an employee to work better with colleagues, interact well with the public as well as exceptional handling of disappointments and frustrations in the workplace.
In the 1930’s, Edward Thorndike describes the concept of emotional intelligence and how it helps to get along with other people.
In 1990, Salovey and Mayer established a program that could be used in measuring the emotional intelligence of a potential workforce and how this measure would help the business in achieving success. In one test, the participants were made to watch an upsetting movie. Afterwards, it was observed that people who exhibited high emotional intelligence were able to recover more quickly from the movie’s disappointments (Kluger & Rothstein, 1993). In another study, people who had higher perception and appraisal of other’s emotions could respond better to social environment changes and built a social network more easily.
In 1990, Daniel Goleman took into consideration the works of Salovey and Mayer in developing his book Emotional Intelligence. Goleman was unsatisfied by traditional cognitive tests but emphasized more on EQ and what it takes to be successful in life. According to Goleman emotional intelligence was more influential when it comes to business success and it majorly focused on four characteristics: Self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, social skills (Ferrante, 2005).
Validity and Reliability
Based on Salovey and Mayer’s conceptualization of Emotional Intelligence in 1990, a study was conducted to ascertain the validity and reliability of Emotional intelligence. Conducted In three stages, stage one comprised of a 33 items EQ scale that was assessed by a panel of experts.17 items were discontinued during this stage. Stage two involved a 5-factor solution model that was subjected to confirmatory analysis. The analysis yielded positive results for 10 of the 17 items. The final test was done over two weeks and provided evidence regarding the retestability of the test. The BEIS- 10 came out as a valid and reliable measurement especially in times when time is limited (SHIPPMANN et al., 2000).
Personality tests refer to systematically designed tests that showcase a person’s preferences, interests, motivations, interaction level, emotional makeup and style of coping up with situations.
Largely influenced by the works of Sigmund Freud, Personality Assessment today still pays homage to its pioneer. In 1990, Freud published The Interpretation of Drams that exerts influence in the field of psychology today. Carl Jung, an Austrian physician, devised one of the early instruments to test personality.
It was not until the World War I that personality testing emerged as a modern form of assessment. Robert Woodworth began testing army recruits for emotional stability through a simple yes or no sheet in 1919. Woolworth process was face valid, but Thurstone improved on it in 1930 by developing the neurotic symptoms for both civilian and military populations.
The validity and reliability of a measuring instrument are easy to evaluate through the consistency of a score when retaken by the same person. Although much progress has been made in measuring personality tests, some defects and limitations must be put in mind. Some tests are ‘fakable’ while others may be designed for a group but administered to an individual (Dahlke & Sackett, 2017).
Personality tests have exhibited a reasonable amount of validity and predictability in job performance. While it is ideal for job-related criteria such as customer service and teamwork the technique falls short when assessing other predictors such as work-related simulations.