As history explicitly demonstrates, Black Nationalism and Pan-Africanism did not just emerge from nowhere, but there were reasons behind their materialization. A close examination of those reasons offers a profound understanding of the intent of the movements. In those times, it was common knowledge that virtually all black people irrespective of their locality were victims of racism and servitude. This commonness convinced Garvey and UNIA that blacks shared a similar set of core principles and beliefs.
The idea of uniting black people globally was sound. Indeed, it was a good strategy of bringing healing and reconciliation. However, Garvey and UNIA erred in their description and construal of what black unity entailed. One notes clearly from their interpretations that they sought to separate blacks from other races. From a critical perspective, this endeavor would not have brought the healing they so much pursued. Rather, it would create more divisions and to some extent sufferings to the blacks.
Garvey and UNIA assumed that radical racial changes were the solution to the problems confronted by blacks. In that context, therefore, they forged ways of empowering blacks politically, economically, and socially. Nonetheless, one of the challenges they confronted was how to implement the newly constructed remedial strategies. There was a need for political, economic, and social power, aspects they evidently lacked. In view of this, it may be correct to conclude that though they had a good idea, they did not have an effective implementation plan.
According to Garvey and UNIA, Black Nationalism and Pan-Africanism were an attempt to improve the welfare of the blacks. These movements came in the backdrop of racism and colonialism. Moreover, the purpose of the movements was to unify black people. The movements never sought to cause chaos and or revolutions but to remind blacks about their similarities, which were ever engraved in their origins and beliefs.