1. Bones possessed by these creatures that are the same as human bones include the radius, ulna, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges. These are the bones of the human hand and arm, responsible for giving it its structure and shape. The phalanges are the bones of the fingertips, responsible for holding onto and gripping objects, among the many other functions of the hand. Metacarpals are the bones of the middle portion of the fingers, where they connect to the hand itself. Carpals are the eight small bones that form the base of the hand and connect it to the wrist. They are also where the physical disorder “carpal tunnel syndrome” is derived from; improper use of the hands when at the computer can result in damage to the carpals and continuous pain. The radius and ulna are the bones that make up the forearm.
Another bone possessed by these creatures is the scapula. The scapula, also known as the shoulder blade, connects the humerus (the upper arm bone) to the shoulders.
These creatures also possess a cranium, mandible, spinal cord, sacrum, and coccyx, like humans do. The cranium is the head and the bone that is responsible for housing the brain, eyes and other vital organs. It is typically quite thick in order to insulate the brain from damage. The mandible is the jaw, used for eating, while the spinal cord provides the backbone of the human and also connects nerves to the brain. The sacrum and coccyx sit at the base of the spine and are responsible for connecting it to the pelvis.
Finally, these creatures also possess femurs, patellas, tibias, and fibulas. The femur is the thigh bone and is the toughest and thickest of all limb bones, enabling walking and physical exertion. The patella is the kneecap, joining the lower and upper legs and allowing the legs to bend. The tibia and the fibula comprise the lower leg and are analogous to the radius and ulna of the arm.
2. Examples of muscles attached to the hands include the extensor carpi radialis brevis, which extends and radially deviates the wrist, originates on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, and has the metacarpal III base as its insertion. They also include the flexor carpi radialis, which flexes and radially deviates wrist, originates at the humerus’ medial epicondyle of the humerus, and has metacarpals II and III (base) as its insertion. They include the extensor carpi ulnaris, which extends and ulnar deviates the wrist, originates from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and posterior shaft of the ulna, and has the metacarpal V (base) as its insertion. They also include the flexor carpi ulnaris, which flexes and ulnar deviates the wrist, originates at the humerus’ medial epicondyle, and has the pisiform, hamate, and metacarpal V (base) as its insertion. They include the extensor digitorum, which extends the digits of the hand and wrist, originates from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, and has the dorsal side of digits two to five as its insertion. Finally, they include the flexor digitorum, which flexes the digits of the hand and wrist, originates at the humerus’ medial epicondyle, and has the anterior side of digits two to five as its insertion.
Muscles that act on the scapula include the levator scapulae, rhomboideus major, serratus anterior, and the upper, middle, and lower trapezius. The first muscle elevates and retracts the scapula, the second retracts it, the third protracts it, and the final three elevate, retract, and depress it. In numerical order, they originate from the following locations: C1 to C4, T2 to T5, ribs one through nine, occipital bone C1-C7, T1 to T5, and T6 to T12. Their insertions are, in the same numerical order: medial border of scapula, superior to spine, medial border of scapula, anterior surface of vertebral border of scapula, lateral 1/3 clavicle and acromion process, spine of scapula, and medial 1/3 of scapula spine.
Muscles that act on the cranium, jaw and related bones are the orbicularis oculi, the orbicularis oris, the zygomaticus major, the buccinators, the frontalis, the masseter, the temporalis, and the platysma. These muscles are responsible for the closing of the eye, the closing of the lips, smiling, whistling, the raising of the eyebrows, the closing of the mouth, the elevation of the mandible, and the opening of the mouth. They originate in the frontal bone and maxilla, the maxilla and mandible, the zygomatic bone, the mandible and maxilla molar regions, the epicranial aponeurosis, the zygomatic arch and bone, the temporal, frontal and parietal bones, and the pectoralis bone. Their insertions are the eyelid, the skin and muscle around the mouth, the skin and muscle at the corner of the mouth, the orbicularis oris, the skin of the eyebrows, the mandible ramus and angle, the coronoid process of the mandible, and the skin of the lower face.
Muscles that act on the bones of the lower leg are the biceps femoris, semimembranosus, the semitendinosus, the vastus lateralis, and the vastus medialis. These muscles are responsible for extending the hip, flexing the knee, and extending the knee. Their origins are the ischial tuberosity, the greater trochanter, and the intertrochanteric line. Their insertions are the head of the fibula, the posterior medial condyle of the tibia, the medial surface of the proximal tibia, and the tibial tuberosity and patella.