1. Middle childhood bullies who bully on a regular basis use more power and aggression at the end of grammar school. When examining research studies, bullies show many differences in regard to parenting styles. Bullies tend to have parents that are not as involved, show lower levels of warmth, and use more of an authoritarian style, which is often exhibited via physical punishment and discipline. (Pepler, Craig, Jiang, & Connoly, 2008). Several other factors seem to cause aggression and bullying. Bullies tend to feel more helpless and less empowered than non-bullies. Since bullies usually hang around other friends who engage in similar behavior, this reinforces bullying actions of each individual. As the number of friends increase, the likelihood of bullying also rises. Surprisingly, students who feel more included in school activities are more prone to inflict bullying and be aggressive. The less social support students feel from teachers, the more likely a youth is to bully .
2. Peer pressure is a major reason that youth often resort to substance use. . Research shows that peer relations play a major factor in a youth’s decision to engage in substance abuse. Friendships that youth maintain influence first time use of a substance, abuse, addiction, length of substance abuse problem, treatment for the drug problem, and how to deal with a youth’s relapse after the substance abuse treatment ends . According to Mason, five characteristics were associated with whether an adolescent used or did not engage in illegal drug use. They include participating in negative activities, presence of people who used substances in the individual’s social network, presence of friends and peers who support not using drugs, involving oneself in in positive relationships, and absence of regular drug abusers in the individual’s life .

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3. Unfortunately, poverty is often a factor that is related to child abuse, neglect, and maltreatment, almost 2,000 kids abused every day. Infants and toddlers are most likely to experience abuse and neglect. Lack of education is one risk factor in terms of child maltreatment, as well as children who live in an economic disadvantaged and depressed neighborhoods with high crime rates . Certain races also seem to support physical punishment more, in the form of spanking or hitting a child. African American and Spanish households seem to approve of this type of discipline more often. This cultural trend was highlighted when African American mother Toya Graham made the national news when she hit her teenage son Michael in the head several times after finding out that he was throwing rocks at the police during the Baltimore riots. Graham’s behavior was both heralded and criticized by the American public.

References

  • Addiction science: from molecules to managed care. (2008, July). Retrieved from National Institute on Drug Abuse.gov website : http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/addiction-science/why-do-people-abuse-drugs/why-would-anyone-abuse-drugs
  • Barboza, G. E. (2008). Individual characteristics and multiple contexts of adolescent bullying: an ecological perspective. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 101-121.
  • Child Poverty. (2014). Retrieved July 21, 2015, from The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York: National Center for Children in Poverty: http://nccp.org/topics/childpoverty.html
  • Cisela, J. R., & Yao, P. (2011). Validation of a Targeted Peer Relations Scale for Adolescents Treated for Substance Use Disorder: An Application of Rasch Modeling . Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment, 35-44.
  • Longshore, D., Eillickson, P. L., McCaffrey, D. F., & St.Clair, P. A. (2007). School-Based Drug Prevention Among At-Risk Adolescents: Effects of ALERT Plus. Health Education and Behavior , 651-668.

  • Mason, M. (2009). Social Network Characteristics of Urban Adolescents in Brief Subtstance Abuse Treatment. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 72-84