Question 1:
For the Strong Memorial Hospital Company there are numerous impacts. These impacts include such things political, economic, social forces that influence the company; thus also including environmental and other external forces that may be present. Political influences depend on the type of government and stability thereof, regulation and de-regulation trends, legislation regulating employment, tax policy, and environmental and consumer-protection legislation (Markwell, 2009). Also considered is the freedom of the press Amendment within these political factors. Freedom of press allows for media to create reports on most anything brought to attention, within legal scope of privacy. This also allows for things to become skewed through the bias on perception and potentially creates extreme impacts for Strong Memorial Hospital.

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Economic forces include comparison of the cost of versus the benefit of. This comparison is made through the QALY system, or rather the Quality Adjusted Life Years. This system allows for multiple treatments to be analyzed by the potential increase of life in perfect health by one year (Health Economics). Along with this analysis per treatments within the hospital, economic analysis need also include such things as stage of business cycle, current and projected economic growth, labor costs, and impacts of globalization (Markwell, 2009). Social forces that may arise are that of population growth, the area’s age profile, press and social attitudes regarding the hospital, as well as, health, education and social mobility therein. There are some political, economic, and social factors that intertwine; a good example of such is through technological advancement. Technological advancement may be deemed an external force all in itself, while holding economic, political, and social qualities.

Question 3a:
It is considerably important to discuss the looming reasons that may produce failures in health policy and management. Of these reasons is the “dominance of microeconomic thinking” (Chinitz, 2014). Further evaluation of Strong Memorial Hospital would perhaps indicate a trend in this occurrence, wherein only focusing on the internal measures and micromanaging those aspects therein. Another important reason that may present failure is that of a lack of competitive medical studies with the underlying local context. Strong Memorial Hospital need take local context in consideration through more than just the looming event that failure may be present without such. Local context and sufficient accurate comparative studies would allow for achievement and accomplishment. Finally a considerable measure than need be accounted for is that of Health Policy and Management (HPAM). This need be considered throughout every employee of Strong Memorial Hospital, even the Physicians. This also need be further implemented to medical students entering the field (Chinitz, 2014). Health Policy and Management thus allow for Strong Memorial Hospital to become a finely tuned operation.

Question 3b:
A final aspect to consider for Strong Memorial Hospital is of ethical issues that may arise. Of these issues that may arise for Strong Memorial Hospital stems from diversity, shortages in staff, and increasing demands on collaboration (Ethical Issues in Nursing, n.d.). In combatant with the ethical issues, it remains federally mandated that all healthcare staff be educated on ethical standards. To further increase success one need consider the bioethics of healthcare as well. Bioethics stands ethical determination for the beginning and ending of life; for example, a patient could be in a coma with no advanced directives in place and combatant immediate family members. It would be inherently important for Strong Memorial Hospital to maintain an ethics committee for both internal ethical issues that may arise, but also ethical issues that may arise for patients. It is also federally mandated that ethical issues must be addressed when interrelated with patient care (Ethical Issues in Nursing, n.d.).

It is important to note that all individuals involved within the hospital, from administration staff, nursing staff, patients, and even physicians all maintain one thing in common; they are all human. Human ethics may be outlined as acceptable and unacceptable, but remain impossible to predict. The best methods to employ in order to ensure that all medical and professional ethics create a positive atmosphere are to create standards in which all must abide by, subjective to the different classes in which they provide or receive services.

  • Markwell, S. (2009). Assessing the impact of political, economic, socio-cultural, environmental and other external influences | Health Knowledge. Retrieved from
  • Chinitz, D., & Rodwin, V. G. (2014). What passes and fails as health policy and Management.
    Journal of Health Politics, Policy & Law, 39(5), 1113-1126 14p. doi:10.1215/03616878-
    2813719. Retrieved from EBSCO multi-search database.
  • Chinitz, D., & Rodwin, V. G. (2014). What passes and fails as health policy and Management. Journal of Health Politics, Policy & Law, 39(5), 1113-1126 14p. doi:10.1215/03616878-
    2813719. Retrieved from EBSCO multi-search database.
  • Health Economics [Video file]. Retrieved from: (3:40)
  • Social Responsibility and Organizations [Video file]. Retrieved from (1:04)