Myocardial ischemia is one of the cardiac complications that is characterized by a significant decrease of blood that flows to the heart; thus, the organ does not receive the required quantities of oxygen (Boron & Boulpaep, 2016). Patients who have the complication are found to have blocked coronary arteries (either partial or complete blockage). If it is not managed early enough, cardiac ischemia could damage the heart muscle of an individual, and may result in a heart attack when one or several coronary arteries are severely blocked. Treatment for the condition involves the use of drugs that improves the volume of blood that flows into the heart. Besides, surgery could be recommended to remove blockages in the affected arteries, or bypass surgery to provide an alternative route of blood flow (Pocock, Richards & Richards, 2013). I think the condition does not frequently occur in the population, and surgical techniques cannot be applied to prevent it, although they are used to correct the complication (Boron & Boulpaep, 2016).
Cardiac tamponade is a cardiac complication that is typified by an accumulation of substances, such as clots and pus, in the pericardium. When the substances penetrate the sac that encloses the heart, the heart compresses to a reduced extent (Pocock et al., 2013). The condition is noted by identifying unusually high levels of pressure that is caused when there is an accumulation of the substances in the sac. Notably, myocardial rupture is a documented cause of tamponade that affects pericardium, and it usually occurs among the elderly (Boron & Boulpaep, 2016). I think the frequency of the condition in the population is low. Although surgical methods cannot be utilized to prevent it, they are used to treat the condition and enable the patient to regain normal cardiac functions. The treatment approach aims at reducing the pressure in the sac of the heart by performing an invasive surgery that drains the accumulated fluids, blood, or other materials. Once the surgical technique is done, medications may be offered to help improve the pressure as well as prevent surgery-related infections.

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Arrhythmias refer to a collection of conditions that are characterized by irregular heartbeats, which could either be abnormally fast or slow. Many forms of tachycardia and bradycardia do not have specific symptoms, but when are present, they are in the form of pauses between heartbeats of a patient (Boron & Boulpaep, 2016). In severe cases, patients could be lightheaded and experience chest pain. The documented causes of the complications include coronary heart diseases, variations in the heart muscle, healing pathways after a surgical technique on the heart, and injuries that may result from heart attacks (Boron & Boulpaep, 2016). I think surgical procedures cannot be utilized to prevent the conditions, but they are used in the management. Drugs, such as beta blockers, are used to bring about a faster heart rate. Patients who have irregular heartbeats are provided with blood thinners with the goal of minimizing the risks of the heart conditions (Sherwood, (2015).

Finally, pulmonary embolism is a condition that is typified by a blocked pulmonary artery. The blockage is caused when a foreign material is lodged in the blood vessels, leading to abnormal lung functions. The clot travels from the heart to the lungs and could pose life-threatening challenges (Sherwood, (2015). A patient may have anxiety, bloody sputum, chest pain, and persistent coughs. I think the condition is not frequent in the general population. Surgical procedures may not be used to prevent the condition, but they are applied when there is the need to remove a clot in the affected artery, which negatively impacts blood flow and functions of the organ. However, non-surgical approaches could be used to prevent the complication; for example, minimizing the chances of experiencing factors that are responsible for deep vein thrombosis (Sherwood, (2015).

    References
  • Boron, W. F., & Boulpaep, E. L. (2016). Medical physiology. New York, NY: Elsevier Health Sciences.
  • Pocock, G., Richards, C. D., & Richards, D. (2013). Human physiology. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.
  • Sherwood, L. (2015). Human physiology: from cells to systems. Hoboken, NJ: Cengage Learning.