1) What are some key emotional aspects taking place in adolescence?
Key emotional aspects that are taking place during adolescence are associated with the establishment of a sense of identity, specifically focusing on the creation of the concept of the self and the promotion of the self-esteem of the individual; at the same time, the individual must also work to develop the appropriate relationship skills to maintain and sustain relationships during the course of his or her life, including the ability to cope with the emotions associated therewith (ReCAPP, 2015).

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a) What is Erikson’s stage of psychosocial development during adolescence? Explain how this stage affects emotionality if a teen has achieved the virtues of previous stages verses if the teen has not.

During adolescence, Erikson’s stage of psychosocial development is identify vs. role confusion (McLeod, 2013). If the child/teen has achieved the virtues of the previous stages, then during this time, the individual will make the transition from childhood to adulthood, increasing his or her independence, and coming into the roles that they will follow as an adult; if the teen has not mastered the previous stages, the teen will be unable to define his or her identity and remain in a state of role confusion (McLeod, 2013).

b) What stage of Kohlberg’s moral development would you expect a teen to be in? Defend your answer and explain why you chose it.

Based on Kohlberg’s stages of moral development, I would expect a child to be at level 2, the level of conventional morality, as it is during this time that individuals start to internalize moral standards that are valued by the adults in the society; it is at this time that teens start to work to emulate such practices (McLeod, 2013).

2) How do autonomy and attachment develop in adolescence? How do these contribute to healthy psychological development and the development of identity?
Autonomy and attachment develop in adolescence through the understanding of the different relationship roles present within the society of the teenager. Through the identification and adoption of the different expected roles present during this time, the teen is able to not only develop the sense of self, but to associate with the different roles that he or she will fill as an adult (McLeod, 2013; ReCAAP, 2015). If the individual is able to accomplish such a practice successfully, the individual will be able to move into the next stage of development and retain the necessary core of the self that allows the individual to sustain healthy psychological practices.

3) What hormonal changes are taking place in puberty?
Sexual maturation occurs during this time, causing increased production of various hormones, resulting in oilier skin, acne, hair growth, sweating, body changes, sexual awakenings, and the development of sexual organs (ReCAAP, 2015).

a) How do hormonal changes affect emotional functioning?
The influx of additional hormones serves to cause certain emotional changes, with the individual drastically fluctuating on the emotional scale as the body attempts to cope with the influx of those hormones and the changes in the body.

b) How do hormonal changes affect relationships (parents, peers, boyfriend/girlfriend). Is there a shift in which relationship becomes primary? Secondary?
Hormonal changes cause emotional outbursts which can adversely affect relationships present. There are certain shifts that may occur in which relationships switch their priorities, however it is important to note that not all individuals make this change, depending on whether or not he or she is successfully able to navigate the psychosocial development changes (McLeod, 2013). During this time, however, the shift should leave a greater focus on peer and romantic relationships.

c) Discuss expected differences in early maturing girls, late maturing girls, early maturing boys, and late maturing boys.
Girls who mature early are likely to be more grounded during the time that others are going through puberty; girls who mature late are likely to fall behind on the psychosocial development scale due to feelings of inadequacy resulting from these physical delays. Boys who mature early physically are likely to remain somewhat immature mentally, keeping on the same level as their peers, while those who mature late are more likely to have difficulties progressing through the psychosocial development stages due to peer pressures.

4) How does an adolescent’s perception of his/her physical appearance affect his/her self-image
and self-esteem?
The perception of the physical appearance can adversely affect the self-image and self-esteem of the teen during this time as it is during the time of adolescence, when puberty hits, that these are forming; societal images of body types will cause the individual to have certain insecurities resulting from an inability biologically to live up to the societal ideal.

a) What are some behavior characteristics of adolescents who have an eating disorder?
Behavior characteristics of adolescents with eating disorders can include “low self-esteem, poor coping skills, childhood physical or sexual abuse, early sexual maturation, (and) perfectionism” (ReCAAP, 2015, p. 1).

b) Based on text learning, what strategies would you suggest for eliminating eating disorders in adolescents?
The strategies I would suggest for eliminating eating disorders would be to increase overall awareness of the disorder, the reasons that such a disorder may present, and the ways in which to combat such a disorder and to get help.

5) What changes take place in the brain during adolescence?
New neural pathways are formed, increased hormone production is present, and increased psychological development occurs in the brain during adolescence.

a) How do these changes affect risk-taking behavior?
These changes to the brain increase risk-taking behaviors as a result of the increased hormones present within the body and the brain.

b) What stage of Piaget’s cognitive development would you expect a teen to be in? Based on your stage given, how would the teen answer the question, “What if people had no thumbs?”
I would anticipate that a teen would be in the assimilation stage of Piaget’s cognitive development, as the schemas would have been created during childhood and it is the teen’s job to be able to use those existing schema to deal with new situations (McLeod, 2013). I would expect that a teen would answer that question by indicating that individuals would pick up items via using two fingers in a scissor approach instead of a pincer one.

6) Risk Taking Behaviors
a) What are some of the risk factors associated with sexuality in adolescence?
Unprotected sex is one risk factor associated with sexuality in adolescence; pregnancy is another, and STDs are a third (ReCAPP, 2015).

b) What are some behavior characteristics of adolescents who are using drugs?
Increased recklessness, lack of attention to surroundings, and, depending on the drug, changes in mood, behaviors, and personality are just some of the different behavior characteristics of adolescents who are using drugs.

c) What is the definition of binge drinking?
The definition of binge drinking is “a pattern of drinking that brings blood alcohol concentration levels to 0.08g/dL. This typically occurs after 4 drinks for women and 5 drinks for men – in about 2 hours” (NIH, 2015, p. 1).

d) What is the leading cause of death in adolescents?
According to the CDC, the leading cause of death in adolescents is accidents (CDC, 2010).

    References
  • CDC. (2010). Mortality Among Teenagers Aged 12-19 Years: United States, 1999-2006. Retrieved 21 May 2015, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db37.htm
  • McLeod, S. (2013). Erik Erikson | Psychosocial Stages | Simply Psychology. Simplypsychology.org. Retrieved 21 May 2015, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
  • McLeod, S. (2013). Jean Piaget. Simply Psychology. Retrieved 21 May 2015, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
  • McLeod, S. (2013). Kohlberg – Moral Development | Simply Psychology. Simplypsychology.org. Retrieved 21 May 2015, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/kohlberg.html
  • NIH. (2015). Drinking Levels Defined. Retrieved 21 May 2015, from http://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/overview-alcohol-consumption/moderate-binge-drinking
  • ReCAPP. (2015). Theories and Approaches. Retrieved 21 May 2015, from http://recapp.etr.org/recapp/index.cfm?fuseaction=pages.TheoriesDetail&PageID=336