The role of Chinese ideology in civil warPolitical ideologies play vital roles in the struggle for certain things. This is because the ideology is typified by beliefs that united people of a particular region (Davis, 2011). If the beliefs are clear, then, it is likely that the war will be fought with determination. However, in some states, ideologies are not clear, resulting in a lack of unity among the soldiers. When people engage in war while in a state of ideological confusion, it implies that they will be defeated. Cooperation is key to winning any war (Davis, 2011). There are some ideologies that strengthen unity among the people and others do not. In this context, the enemies take the advantage of their weakness. Therefore, it is important for communities engaging in civil war to evaluate their ideologies and develop strategies for success (Davis, 2011). To gain more insights regarding the role played by ideologies in wars, this paper focuses on comparing and contrasting the role played by ideology causing the Chinese Civil War as well as in attracting outside involvement.
Nationalists depended on foreign powers and attempted to repay the enormous debts using the increased tax for common citizens (Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision, 2015). The tax was increased while corruption was not left to flourish within and out of the government. The little resources that were available were used by the private companies to improve their value while increasing prices of the commodities. These steps threatened to worsen China’s economy. One of the principal ideological causes of the civil war is the European influence (Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision, 2015). In fact, the main European powers controlled bigger spheres of influence in parts of China. Evidently, Britain was the major aggressor and joined the India in the Opium wars. It is critical to note that the British persuaded China to buy opium from India, the then British province. Significantly, China had aimed at stopping the high influx of opium on account of the primary social changes that were evident with opium addiction. However, they were not able to do so because of the British superiority (Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision, 2015). As a result, there was a division between the nationalists and the communist. The spread of communist ideology also contributed to the civil war. It is important to state that communism provided peasants who lived in rural China hope from the poor economic situation. High taxation imposed on Chinese peasants caused hatred toward the nobles and the system currently in place, resulting in a war. After the country had been divided into two, i.e., the nationalists and the communists, there was the development of suspicion in the groups. The nationalistic ambitions triggered the civil war on one side while the communist promise to support the poor acted as an upper hand during the war (Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision, 2015).
It is vital to state that communists’ side was supported by not only the peasants, but also the industrial workers. The differences in ideologies sparked the war. Despite the fact that the GMD had all the resources, it was characterised by weak ideology that caused confusion and decline. A lack of confidence in their beliefs after terribly losing in the resistance war made its leaders fear about the future. On the other hand, the CPP was full of determination that was founded on communist ideology. They fought while detesting the past and longing for a better new world. They forgot their ideological hatred of the old society, which led to their defeat. It is critical to state that the strong ideology of the CPP enabled them to display a sense of strong renewal and redemption that was being enhanced by the young who had been born during the hopeless period in China (Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision, 2015). Although the two sides did not recognise the ideology as key to the cause and eventually the defeat of one side, beyond the fighting on the battlefield, there was a propaganda struggle for the hearts and minds of the primary features of the Chinese population, a war that the CPP won. In this context, it is clear that ideology acted as a source of inspiration to the fighter and those who had weak beliefs were eventually defeated. For example, the GMD’s leader did not trust many military figures and spurred many political figures. This was also a weakness in CPP, whereby Mao’s harshness in handling his political opponents helped him to entrench his tight control over the party. This harshness was less when dealing with his generals because he seemed to have confidence in them.
From this view, it is explicit that the communist ideology was grounded in Marxist ideologies of shared wealth, abolishment of social stratification and empowerment of the common people was popular among the workers, peasants, and the educated individuals from China. In fact, this side comprised of 99% of the total Chinese population because of its notion of caring for all classes of people. On the other hand, Chiang, Kai-Shek, and his group was hated by many people because of his favour toward the middle and upper class in the hope of depending on them to boost the nation’s growth and development as well as tax revenue (Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision, 2015). He was ignorant of the plight of the common people, especially the one that was called the underclass that provided labour. It is worrying to note that people in this category were treated like animals with less or no consideration from the government.
` Having looked at the role the ideology played in causing the Civil War, it is also critical for shedding some light on its role in outside involvement. The results of the Chinese civil war motivated more European powers to engage in the war (Sutter, 2012). The Americans joined the joined the side of the nationalists and attempted to spread capitalist ideas while the Soviet Union joined on the side of the communist. What should be understood is that both powers’ involvement significantly affected the outcome of the war. Evidently, the communist side was comprised of poorly equipped peasants while the nationalists were well-equipped for the war (Sutter, 2012). The ideology helped the communist to obtain help from the Soviets in the form of military organisation, which allowed their messages to be encrypted and intercept nationalist messages. This was critical to aiding the Guerrilla tactics employed during the war. To spread capitalist ideology, the American-funded the nationalist and equipped them with superior weapons (Sutter, 2012). This was in the hope that if they defeated the communists, then, communists’ anti-capitalistic ideas would not threaten America anymore. In fact, they sent over billions of dollars to purchase arms and supplies in believing that the sheer offensive power could defeat the communist guerrilla tactics.
In conclusion, clear ideologies form the basis of success in a series of wars for the reason that it unites people. Sometimes, the supported from the outside may be forced to change their foreign policies as was the case with the US. Evidently, it had increased the number of Indians in its countries to aid industrial projects (Sutter, 2012). After the communist ideas had increased in China, there was an increase in tension between US and China. This is because they believed that if China fell, Communist ideas would spread all over the China. In this view, each side was keen on maintaining its ideas by supporting its ideology.
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- Rudbeck-IB-History-Revision, (2015). The Chinese Civil War (1946-49). Retrieved from
- Sutter, R. G. (2012). Chinese Foreign Relations: Power and Policy since the Cold War. Lanham,
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