According to the classical conditioning ideology, the process of association is applied in learning new behaviors. Therefore, the linkage between two stimuli assist in the learning of a certain response in an individual. One of the essential entities in classical conditioning is the ability of an individual to learn from the environment in a progressive or gradual capacity leading to an eventual acquisition of a certain characteristic that is identical to the environment (Coon & Mitterer, 2009). Classical conditioning is one of the entities that leads to extreme emotional responses to individuals which is a typical representation of the phobic responses. Phobias are reactions that can be referred to as irrational responses from individuals. Usually, the phobias are in the form of a reaction to some entities that is caused by a lot of fear because of the danger or threat that comes with the stimulus. The classical conditioning ideology is one of the ideologies that has given a realistic approach towards defining various phobic responses in victims. When an individual encounters certain situations that causes a lot of fear in several encounters, there is a development of an emotional link in the relation to the stimuli associated with the event. Therefore, any moment there is an occurrence of the stimuli, the victim reacts with a lot if fear because of the potential threat posed by the trigger (Coon & Mitterer, 2009). This is a typical representation of the classical conditioning philosophy.

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Operant Conditioning and Addiction
Addictions present a big social problem in the society today because they lead to suicide, mental illness, criminal behavior and chronic medical conditions (Coon & Mitterer, 2009). Addiction can be defined as the inability of an individual to have control over the use of psychoactive drugs and substances. The addition is also associated with a compulsive response from individuals as a way of overcoming some obsessive activities or behaviors. The physiological processes associated with addiction develop through operant conditioning in the victim. An operant condition is usually described as a second learning norm. This is learning that takes place when there are a cause and effect engagement associated with a certain behavior and the consequences that follow. An essential explanation for operant conditioning that links directly to addiction is the ideology that when a behavior receives a reward, it is likely to be motivated, and it will increase. On the other hand, a behavior is likely to decrease when it is not rewarded. The timing of rewards in this perspective is also one of the factors that can be taken into consideration in this capacity. Consequently, the victims of addiction are always under constant pressure to undertake the activities associated with their habit. One of the reasons that can make an individual have an extreme desire to for something is a high level of pleasure, and mental satisfaction acquired after the engagement. Consequently, an activity or substance can only be addictive if it offers a reward to the victim. Therefore, the addiction is a behavior that is learned when an individual experienced rewarding feelings when exposed to continuous exposure to the activity or substance. Punishment, as outlined in classical conditioning, is also elemental towards the development of addiction (Coon & Mitterer, 2009). For instance, if an individual that takes alcohol experiences a punishment early enough like a disabling medical condition or severe injuries, then, addiction cannot occur because there is no reward to motivate the repetition of the behavior.

Distinction between Classical and Operant Conditioning
There is a big distinction between classical and operant conditioning in the psychology perspective. In the learning process, the most common strategy that is embraced towards efficient information acquisition from an environment where an individual exists. Operant and classical conditioning the common associative knowledge acquisition entities that are an application in the behavioral pint of view. However, the paths of learning between the two ideologies exhibit massive variations (Coon & Mitterer, 2009). The trigger that produces reflexive responses associated with classical conditioning is reflexive, and its replacement with another stimulus can occur. On the other hand, an individual gets to choose a behavior of an option in relation to its associated consequences. The consequences or rewards come in the form of negative or positive reinforcement, and these are the attributed that motivate or demotivate the development of behavior. Therefore, a reflexive behavior that occurs involuntarily is the critical description of while the operant conditions can involve a choice of the learner for the habit and activity to engage in (Coon & Mitterer, 2009). Therefore, this is a manifestation that unlike classical conditioning where the learning experience for the learner is perceived to be passive, there is an active learning process associated with operant conditioning. Therefore, the maintenance and sustenance of the learning processes of various entities from the environment through persistent extinction or stimulation can be successful by the application of the ideologies of operant and classical conditioning through the use of different frameworks of adoption.

Extinction between Operant and Classical Conditioning
Extinction describes the disappearance or decrease of a certain behavior that occurs as a result of a conditioned response gradual weakening. Extinction is evident in both classical and operant conditioning. In the classical conditioning perspective, extinction is likely to occur in situation where there is no linkage between the unconditioned and the conditioned stimulus that combine to cause an emotional response from the victim (Coon & Mitterer, 2009). Extinction can also occur in operant conditioning, and this is manifested in a situation whereby a behavior that has been trained does not yield the expected reinforcement or reward to the victim. Consequently, there is no point of motivation towards the habit, and it disappears gradually if the condition continues.

  • Coon, D. & Mitterer, J. (2009). Psychology: A Journey. New York: Cengage Learning