Collagen as a scaffold material has an advantage related to some of the macromolecular substances that undergoes metabolism process in the biological environment. The use of collagen in fabrication and pore-structure-controlled 3D structures is minimal as a result of low process ability (Hutmacher et al, 2004). The collagen has the design to enable the sufficient entry of cells with an easy diffusion of the collaborated nutrients. Making the material into a 3D collagen involves the use of a hybrid technology capable of combining the electro spinning process with the cryogenic plotting system. The use of the technique enables the fabrication of a hierarchical 3D scaffold with micor-sized porous strands of collagen and nano-sized fibers of the collagen (Hutmacher et al, 2004).
The collagen 3D scaffold pore structure is under the control of the collagen nano-fibers layered in the scaffold (Hutmacher et al, 2004). The characterization of the hierarchical 3D scaffolds is with respect to the initial cell attachment with the proliferation perspective of bone marrow-derived cells contained by the scaffold. The scaffold exhibited enables the enhancement of cell attachment and compactness amid the plotted scaffold pores relative to the 3D collagen scaffold designed normally (Blitterswijk & Thomsen, 2008). The collagen coating is homogeneously through using the multiwalled carbon nanotubes by the aspect of dispersion. The MC3T3-E1 cells then follows as they culture on and the inside of the MWCNT-coated sponge (Blitterswijk & Thomsen, 2008).
The multiwalled carbon nanotubes -coated sponge DNA content after a week of the culturing process is relatively higher compared to the uncoated collagen (Burdick & Mauck, 2011). During the process, there is no significant difference between the ALP estimated activity and the DNA quantity that is under normal conditions on the multiwalled carbon nanotubes -coated collagen. This is with the uncoated collagen, which are preferable as the best scaffolds during cell cultivation. The coated surface of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes has an indication of strong cell bond. As a result, the coated collagen sponge as expected to be one of the functional 3D scaffold during cell cultivation (Burdick & Mauck, 2011).
In changing mechanical property of the scaffold, matching the tissue of the scaffold to a native tissue is effective and is possible through the alteration of the base materials or the pore architecture of the scaffold (Blitterswijk & Thomsen, 2008). Since the latter is restricted through the requirements of the tissue in-growth, it is of significance altering the base materials of the scaffold material chosen. This has an indication that bulk modulus of the polyglycerol sebacate can undergo changes through variation molar ratios and curing time during the prepolymer synthesis (Blitterswijk & Thomsen, 2008).
One of the scaffold properties altered during the change includes physical stabilization and reduction in biodegradability of the scaffold (Herbage & Chevallay, 2000). Through the application of base materials as modulus inputs, the homogenization of the structure finite elements breakdown enables the prediction of the tangent modulus of the scaffold designs. In altering the physical stabilization, an advantage resulting is significant in designing a new regeneration scaffolds (Herbage & Chevallay, 2000). Biodegradability activity reduction would result from the change since the application of the base materials would necessitate the introduction of cross-links between polypeptide chains. This in return lowers the rate of degradation in relation to the ratio variation involved in changing the mechanical property of the scaffold (Herbage & Chevallay, 2000).
The rapid developments in tissue engineering have enabled the use of biomaterials including collagen as 3D scaffolds and devices in cell transplant. The diversification involved in collagen applications has undergone enhancements through the progress made in understanding the properties of the collagen. The 3D engineered tissue constructs through the process are promising approaches towards tissue regeneration and repair. Changes to the mechanical properties enable the restoring and altering the functions to added advantage.