Computer networks are commonly referred to as the data networks that are telecommunication platforms along which computer can exchange information and data. The computer networks are established along devices that are technological devices that enhance the ability of the computers to transmit data from one point to another (Wendell, 2010). In order to ensure that there is effective transmission of the data, it is passed from one point to another in forms of packets that are strategically coded by the computer devices to enhance the networking and linking process.

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There are various types of computer networks that can be categorized according to the scale and scope of the designs (Groth, 2005). The structural and functional capabilities of the computer networks also play a big roles towards the categorization of the networks because some these networks are established to serve unique and distinct purposes within an area of administration. Some of the most common types of computer networks used in the technological industry today include Local Area Networks (LAN), Wide Area Networks (WAN), and Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) These types of networks can also be manipulated to serve exclusive purposes some of which can be referred to as Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN), Campus and System Area Networks (Wendell, 2010).

The LAN networks are strategically suitable for enhancing connections to short areas of connection. This is because the nature of these networks assist them to be effective over short distances in the transmission of reception of data. Some of the typical areas where the LAN can be applied can include the network of a certain office, Building or school. In some instances, it can also be applied to some buildings that are located within short distances. The LANs are usually administered and controlled by a single entity that can be an organization or person. The WANs are used in places where the networking is done over relatively large areas of administration. A typical presentation of a WAN is the Internet that spans across the earth. The WANs constitute of several LANs.

The Router is the device that is used for connecting LANs to form a WAN. A WAN is not owned by a single entity but by distributed and collective management and ownership. The WANs use sophisticated technological platforms to enhance their services. The Metropolitan area networks are an application in larger geographical regions that range between LAN and WAN and they are owned and controlled by entities like organizations and governments. CANs are used with a connection of some LANs in order to connect a place like a University of a college. The WLANs also make use of the Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) technology to connect computers in a certain region.

In order to ensure that computer networks work effectively, the layout of the connected devices is elemental (Stallings, 2010). The layout is enhanced by the use of the standard topologies that are used in networking. The topologies are the virtual representations of the physical framework that establishes the networks. The arrangement of the computers and other devices used in the network construction are also essential in the formation of the topologies. The Common topologies include bus, tree, mesh, star and ring. The topologies have the nodes that are representations of the nodes and the connecting of the tools that are used to enhance the networks (Wendell, 2010). The nodes can be the computer and other devices used in the networks. The number of computers and the type of networking also required dictate the type of topology used. The topologies also have the signal and logical representation that control the flow of information from one node to another.