Article 1Walton and Cohen (2011) conducted a research that was inspired by the impact of stereotyping and social marginalization of African- American students and other minority groups on academic performances and increased susceptibility to common illneses. The research focused on Caioppo and Patrick’s research on loneliness and the human need for social connection. The findings from the research found a correlation between social acceptance and human satisfaction. Additionally, the research by Cohen et al. on the influence of socioeconomic status to the susceptibility of the common cold was used. Cohen’s research provided background information on the correlation between socioeconomic status and susceptibility rates of different communities. The research aimed at addressing the question of whether the uses of social-belonging intervention improve academic and health outcomes of minority students.
One of the hypotheses stated that socio-belonging interventions that consider social adversities common and transient improve the academic outcomes of African-Americans and other minority groups. The other hypothesis stated that social-belonging interventions improve the health outcomes of the minority groups by increasing self-reported health and well-being cases.
101 students participated in the primary study in groups of 49 African-Americans and 43 European-Americans. Additional 1556 students were indirectly used as a secondary control group to compare grade-point averages. Convenience sampling was used to recruit the African American students while random sampling was used to select the European-Americans. Random sampling was used when assigning the groups to the treatment and control sections. The participants were first separated into two groups, the African-American group and the European-American Group. The combined number of participants was then separated into two groups, the treatment group and the control group. Paper-and-pencil tests or measures were used to collect data. The students were taken through a learning process that was meant to change their mindset, after which tests were issued. Additionally, the data was analyzed by calculating scores on a measure. The scores were generated from the grade-point averages. Used statistical or mathematical analyses to compare or relate scores or measures (quantitative). Multiple regressions were used to compare social-behavioral impacts on academic and health outcomes.
The African-American students in the social-belonging treatment had significant improvements in their grade-point averages. The rate of self-reporting and wellness was improved among the African-Americans in the treatment plan. The research problem was solved and the research hypotheses supported by the findings. The research demonstrated that social-belonging programs are essential in schools and other institutions to eliminate low-esteem and social-based inequalities. The programs improve social-inclusiveness while increasing academic performances. Future research should focus on the strategies for promoting equality in performance, health, and wellbeing.
Article 2
The research by Quan, Anderson, and Hodge (2013) conducted a research on the sleep health of college students. Most college students have poor sleep habits that affect their health and academic performances. The research used a 2001 study by Buboltz, Brown, and Soper on the sleep habits of college students. Additionally, another research by Forquer et al. focused on the poor sleep patterns of university students and the effects of sleep deprivation to academic performances and health.
The research aimed at answering the question of whether an internet-based learning module could improve the sleep literacy of college students. One of the hypotheses stated that students using a structured internet-based learning program that addressed their sleep patterns had better control of their personal sleep behaviors. The other hypothesis stated that an internet-based program has the potential of transforming the sleep behaviors of college students by enhancing their sleep knowledge and awareness.
1767 students were recruited to join the research from four sections. Among those selected, 889 came from two sections that were recruited to receive online supplementary guidelines while 878 from the other two sections were allowed to access sleep instructions from the internet without any structured program. Convenience sampling was used to select the groups to participate in structured instructions. Additionally, the students were separated into two groups of 889 and 878. The first group (N = 889) was given the internet-based structured instruction while the other group (N = 878) was allowed to access the internet but denied access to the structured instructions. Physical tests and measures were used to collect the data where a test was provided in the internet to assess the students’ level of sleep knowledge. Data was computed by calculating scores on a measure by collecting the scores after interacting with the internet-based program were use to compare the students’ performances. T-tests were used to compare the performances of different students in different test groups.
The research demonstrated that the students that were subjected to the internet-based module had improved post-tests compared to the others. The research problem was answered and the hypotheses were supported by the findings. Online-based learning on sleep performances and programs can improve knowledge on sleep, enhance personal control, and sleep health. Future research should extend the application of internet-based programs to other areas of education.

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  • Quan, S. F., Anderson, J. L., & Hodge, G. K. (2013). Use of a supplementary internet based education program improves sleep literacy in college psychology students. Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, 9(2), 155-160.
  • Walton, G. M., & Cohen, G. L. (2011). A brief social-belonging intervention improves academic and health outcomes of minority students. Science, 331(6023), 1447-1451.