Since the late 1960s, scholarly interest into how second languages are acquired has been consistently in evidence (Ellis, 2005, p. 210), just as the emphasis on cultural diversity in more recent decades has fueled a far greater motivation in acquiring foreign languages. As globalization eliminates barriers between cultures, the learning of other languages in fact becomes something of a pragmatic concern, as it produces value in everyday living. Motivation aside, however, the reality remains that learning another language is typically more challenging to both instructors and students than almost any other type of education, and because any language is an inherently complex, and culturally-based, study. Structure, vocabulary, pronunciation, and basic linguistics are important, but these alone do not usually serve to imprint the new language in the student’s mind. Rule-based competence has traditionally been viewed as the best means and measure of language acquisition. Modern research, however, reveals that such an approach denies the student a more intimate and expansive conception of the language as linked to the culture (Ellis, 2005, p. 211), and new models of instruction must be attempted.
New teachers in particular, research finds, are frequently challenged by a virtual inevitability in second language learning: the anxiety of the students, who are intimidated by the degree of learning required to gain familiarity with the language (Silber, 2013, p. 265). It must be reiterated that language acquisition is unlike any other form of learning, as it relies on both a comprehension of the basic linguistics and knowledge of how the language reflects nuance and colloquial attributes. For the novice instructor, teaching these elements demands a high level of ability and familiarity with the elements themselves. Age, it has also been revealed, plays an important part in language learning as well. One study involving hundreds of students in Budapest learning English found that university-level and adult language learners exhibit significantly higher degrees of motivation, and attach greater importance to acquiring the new language (Kormos, Csizér, 2008, p. 118). This translates to lessened ambition on the ;part of younger learners. Retention is an issue as well, and because the learner is usually not within an environment where the new language is heard, outside of the classroom. Lastly, it is as well documented that a major issue in foreign language instruction lies in teacher belief systems. More exactly, studies support that it is usual for such teachers to instruct in the language based on their own idea of it as inferior or superior to the native language, and consequently teach in a highly subject and narrowed manner (Silber, 2013, p. 258). All of the above and more then represents the issues in foreign language instruction.
Solutions, nonetheless, are being devised and utilized in language learning settings. Teachers are encouraged to emphasize implicit, rather than explicit, meaning; that is, the culture’s own interpretation of certain linguistic components must be taught, and is based on the student’s initial understanding of the language basics. Some theorists, in fact, insist that the meaning-based approach should be in place from the start and abetted by literal interaction between speakers of the foreign language and the students acquiring it (Ellis, 2005, p. 214). It is also recommended that language instructors work with one another, as teachers learn best from other teachers (Silber, 2013, p. 281). Then, the Internet is seen as a valuable instrument in instructing foreign languages, and chiefly because of its multimedia aspect. When used correctly, the Internet can virtually bring the student into the culture and landscape of the new language, though videos and interactive contact (Moore, Morales, & Corel, 2013, p. 111). All things considered, it appears that modern foreign language learning is increasingly based on what may be called the concept of immersion. The student will, it is felt, better gain the fullest knowledge and sense of the many facets of the language when they are exposed to both the rules of it and the ways in which it represents the native culture.