Female circumcision reduces immorality among girls by reducing sexual sensitivity. It encourages marriage since circumcised women are perceived as virgins. Moreover, it has an aspect of religious fulfilment especially among Muslims. It also holds cultural values to involved communities (MacLachlan, 2006, p. 26). As much as society is entitled to practice its culture, there is need to consider the effects it has on subjects. Female circumcision has shown to deny women the right to enjoy life thus it should be discouraged. This will mean culture change, but human culture evolves through change (MacLachlan, 2006, p. 26). Individualistic patients seeking therapies prefer distant qualified therapists and their issues revolve around social life.

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Individuals with collective features desire close therapists and the procedure focuses on personal problems. In masculine settings, the therapist focuses on what is fundamentally correct based on patient remorse. On the contrary, feminist settings require therapists to focus on patient anxiety. In high uncertainty avoidance settings, patients believe in scientific remedies while in low uncertainty avoidance settings, patients welcome diverse therapy procedures to handle their issues. Finally, in high power distance settings, patients recognize therapist expertise and issues involve perception change. In low power distance settings, issues involve self-development (MacLachlan, 2006, p. 58-59).

Integration is advantageous in the sense that personal identity is kept and new culture is learned. However, new culture may contravene old culture and it may be hard to balance cultures (MacLachlan, 2006, p. 45). With assimilation, individuals get full recognition from dominant groups and the opportunity to abandon bad culture. However, adopted culture may be harmful and host groups may not fully recognize the minority. Separation maintains cultural identity and protection from harmful new culture. However, subjects may face hostility from hosts and segregation (MacLachlan, 2006, p. 45). Marginalization protects original cultures and individuals can alternate cultures to their advantage. The demerits are that individuals are not supported and it may be difficult to operate on the margin of two cultures (MacLachlan, 2006, p. 46).

Personality disorders result from cultural differences in the way people interact with life. Culture defines normal and abnormal behaviour thus any deviations from the expected behaviour is seen as a personality disorder. Since culture is different, behaviors that may be regarded as abnormal may actually be normal and acceptable in other cultures (MacLachlan, 2006, p. 114). Research in western countries has found depression rates of 9-20% and 18-40% among men and women respectively. Different people experience depression differently depending on culture. Symptoms include long periods of depressed mood and low personal activity. Depression-associated ailments result in distress and reduced body activity (MacLachlan, 2006, p. 94).

I can culturally identify myself with being a young college student in the middle class. Risk factors associated with those identities include drugs and future uncertainty for being young, exams and finances for being in college and security and finance for being in the middle class. Protective factors for being young include freedom and support. Protective factors for being in college include a good future and talent growth. Protective factors for being middle class include success and recognition. As a clinician, being culturally sensitive to such a patient will start by first acknowledging the value of culture in their lives. Secondly, I will explain the role of both culture and the treatment in their health, with merits and demerits of both. The final step will involve helping the patient choose the option that fits the infection (MacLachlan, 2006, p. 141).

As a clinician, the best way to deal with such a patient is by first recognizing the role that culture plays in treating the infection. Secondly, I will try to understand the negative effects associated with cultural form of treatment. Finally, I will replace the treatment with one that identifies with the patient’s culture. Social integration nurtures relationships across cultural diversity (MacLachlan, 2006, p. 141). Reputation focuses on keeping good identity while morality is concerned with keeping off evil. People tend to strictly adhere to the dimensions, thus dimensions affect infections related to them. The motivation behind the adherence is social acceptance.