Bombay, India is a city that is now known internationally, since 1995, as Mumbai, India (Beam, 2008). However, local residents refuse to adopt this change and they still call their city Bombay (Khan, 2016). There are four major languages which are spoken in this city (Advameg, 2017). The religion in Mumbai is primarily Hindu, with Christianity being the secondary religion (Advameg, 2017). The culture of Mumbai believes in karma, and their beliefs also support a caste system in society. The culture is famous for its seaside views (Appendix A).
The four languages which are spoken are Indo-European, Dravidian, Austroasiatic, and Tibeto-Burman (Advameg, 2017). Although there are four languages, the culture is not divided by language but by caste system. The culture is notorious for having a caste system that is ascribed at birth and gives each citizen a particular role to play in the city. One of the things that is notable about the culture in Bombay is that women are usually deferential to men, and that men are always deferential to religious icons (Khan, 2016). The respect that people have for each other may be the result of the Hindu belief in karma. Therefore, the golden rule is practiced because no one wants to have bad karma.

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The name of Bombay means something to do with being seaside: ‘“Bombay’ is an anglicization of the Portuguese name ‘Bombaim,’ which is believed to derive from the phrase ‘Bom Bahia,’ or ‘Good Bay”’ (Beam, 2008). The Good Bay in the name of Bombay reflects on the way that the culture respects the waters of the Indian Ocean (Beam, 2008). The change to the name of Mumbai has not been culturally embraced for the people who have lived in Bombay do not call it Mumbai.

  • Advameg Inc. (2017). India. Countries and Their Cultures. Retrieved from
  • Beam, C. (2008). Why did Bombay become Mumbai? Slate. Retrieved from
  • Khan, S. (2016). 36 hours in Mumbai, India. New York Times. Retrieved from