There has been numerous advances in technology for the last few decades. Several breakthrough in technology have been realized in various sectors of the economy such as telecommunication, banking, and general communication. In addition, further innovation are also on the way marking a continuous era of technology innovation and advancement. The internet has also experienced a breathtaking expansion over the past few years, expanding from a small network that was mainly based on a particular community to a global network that serves and utilized by more than two billion users. The expansion of the internet led to the increase of use of application and the emergency of contemporary issues such as cyber wars (Libicki, 2009). Given the increasing dependency on information systems in general and access has increased the vulnerability of cyber-attacks across various countries.According to Mehan (2009), cyberwar involves the activities of a particular country or an international organization making an attempt to attack or cause damage on the computer or information systems network of another country. For instance, the spread of computer viruses or the attacks involving denial-of-service are some common cyber war activities carried out by a country or an organization to another country. States could find themselves at a situation of cyberwar in two ways that include the deliberate provocation and through escalation (Clarke, 2010). A situation of a cyberwar would deliberately arise from the belief of one state that it can gain advantage over another state by causing disruption or confusion on their information systems. In addition, cyberwar might also begin as counter escalation and escalation in a crisis involving taking the own lives of the own individuals at risk. In either case, the beginning of a cyberwar is an implication that key deterrence has experienced failure. However, by noting that, the minor mechanisms to deter the ability or capability to create a do not cross lines may still remain successful.
Given the increasing and the widening scope of largely depending on information systems and other internet critical infrastructure, the vulnerability of cyberwar from another country is increasingly becoming viable (Singer, 2014). For instance, some nations such as North Korea and Iran that are in loggerheads with the United States have engaged in cyberwar activities targeting American multinational corporations with the objective of exploiting the systems and causing harm to information technology systems. Senior administrative leaders in the United States and abroad have become more concerned that the risks of cyberwar are increasing especially in the wake of cyber-attack on Sony computer network systems (Krepinevich, 2012). Some leaders have likened the cyberwar of having the capability to inflict damage similar to that of a nuclear weapon.
In either, it is important to note that states engage in cyberwar for the purpose of accomplishing certain ends instead of end in itself. In regard to that, cyberwar involves external and internal objectives. The external objectives are reasons for starting the cyberwar such as bending the will of another state (Arguilla, 2011). The internal objectives is associated to the management of fighting the state itself by employing actions that involve stopping it or limiting the scope of its protection systems as well as avoiding the escalation into any form of violence in their society.
In a nutshell, the increasing dependency on information system in general and access has increased the vulnerability of cyber-attacks across various countries. Cyberwar involves the activities of a particular country or an international organization making an attempt to attack or cause damage on the computer or information systems network of another country. The increasing and the widening scope on largely depending on information systems and other internet critical infrastructure, the vulnerability of cyberwar from another country is increasingly becoming viable causing major concerns on the government. There is need to develop strategies to deter cyberwar threats.

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    References
  • Arguilla, J. (2011). Cyberwar is coming. Retrieved 25 April, 2015 from http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/monograph_reports/MR880/MR880.ch2.pdf
  • Clarke, R. (2010). Cyber War: The Next Threat to National Security and What to Do About It. Harper Collins
  • Libicki, M. (2009). Cyberdeterrence and Cyberwar. Rand Corporation
  • Mehan, J. (2009). Cyberwar, Cyberterror, Cybercrime: A Guide to the Role of Standards in an Environment of Change and Danger. IT Governance Ltd