It is perhaps not fair to assume that there was one typical day for all Roman people. Like with most societies, one’s day and activities depended largely on one’s social status, and especially one’s wealth. Family was a very important concept in Rome, with the father holding all of the power in a family unit. Likewise, there were two kinds of marriages – one where a woman would be beholden to her husband, and another where she would still be beholden to her father.
There was some access to education for most kids, and this started around the age of seven in most cases. However, wealthier kids got private teachers in the home, while other kids did not get this benefit. Romans also cared significantly about health, though they were not that far along. They had learned from the Greeks and tried to implement a number of public health initiatives. The baths were thought to be a way for people to cleanse themselves.
Roman slaves were very important. They did many things, including building the city’s structures and even teaching kids in some cases. Life could be very harsh for slaves or very calm, depending upon the slave and the owner. In many cases, slaves were beaten or put into spectacles. Some, however, were given a reprieve, especially those who had some education. They were given higher-level tasks and managed to avoid too much violence.
Patricians in the Roman Empire were the aristocrats, or the upper crust. Plebians were the common people, or the lower class. The distance between these two groups was considerable at most points during the Empire’s reign.
Lastly, the Army played a major role, as army leaders also had political power. The Army did do some policing, though there was a split with much of the policing done by a civilian guard (similar to our police today). Overall, because Rome was almost constantly at war, the culture of the Army pervaded through much of society.