The term universe is used to refer to the totality of the existence and encompasses all what it is observable and what is not seen (Carr 50). Planets, stars, galaxies, matter, energy, among others are component of the universe. Notably, that there are different thoughts regarding how the world works and its composition. Notably, the size of the whole universe is unknown, and the observable universe is anticipated to be approximately twenty-eight billions parsecs in diameter at the present (Carr 50). The study of the universe is called cosmology, and many cosmologists hold that the universe is in constant evolution (Carr 50). However, according to the religion, cosmology deals with atheistically created universe through supernatural forces (Carr 60).

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Ancient ideas regarding how the universe works are found in the works of Greek philosophers who had different views. During the Neolithic period, the universe comprised of the weather, earthquake, and changes that were experienced in the environment (Carr 70). The oldest mythical and theological concepts of the universe are found in the Mesopotamians civilization, which held that there was plurality of heavens and earths with had six-level universe constituting of three heavens and three earths (Carr 71).

According to the myth, gods Marduk, who were later divided into two pantheons, whereby one occupied the heavens and the other the earth (Carr 72), created the earth. The ancient philosophers tried to understand the reality behind the appearances because they posited that appearances many be deceiving. In fact, their ideas have significantly influenced the modern thoughts regarding the universe. For instance, the ability of matter to change forms and many of them believed that the physical materials that exist in the world are in different forms of one primordial material. According to Plato, there are two universes, i.e., the physical and the immaterial worlds of forms (Guthrie 60).

Plato posits that the objects and ideas that are evident in the material world are “shadows” of the forms. In fact, his thoughts helped to solve the problem of how to distinguish objects in the material world, yet they are similar. According to him, nature is controlled by timeless mathematical laws, which are not invented, but discovered. He notes that the more we try to probe, the rules concerning the nature (Guthrie 65). Plato’s universe was made of five elements, which included the earth, water, air, fire, and quintessence (Guthrie 65). The anthropocentric view of the universe holds that matter that exist in the universe is made of a combination of four elements. The earth, water, fire, and air, and the result from the working of hotness and dryness upon an initial unqualified matter.

The geocentric model is found in the Pre-Socratic philosophy and holds that the earth is shaped like a section of the pillar, which is held aloft in the center of everything (Christianidis, Dialetis and Gavroglu 148). The sun, moon, and other planets surround it, and there are holes that exist that enable human beings to see a concealed fire. This model posits that the universe is in constant motion. In this model, Plato believed that the earth was spherical and was stationed at the center of the universe and he describes the cosmos as spindle of necessity that is attended by the sirens and turned by three fates (Christianidis et al. 149).

In this model, Aristotle developed a view that the spherical earth is at the center of the universe, and other heavenly bodies are connected to many transparent concentric spheres, which rotate around the earth. The geocentric model corresponds to Ptolemy’s model, which holds that the earth is at the center of the universe. His deductions were based on a simple observation that half the stars were above the horizon, and the other have the horizon (Christianidis et al. 149). In fact, the stars were believed to be some distance from the center of the universe and rotated around the earth.

Contrary to geocentric, believe that the planets revolved around the earth, heliocentric model posit that planets revolve around the sun, which is at the center (Christianidis et al. 150). Aristarchus of Samos proposed the model, and he calculated the size of the earth. In fact, he concluded that the sun was six to seven times wider than the Earth (Christianidis et al. 152). This implies that it was hundreds of times voluminous. Nicholaus Copernicus, who proposed a revolving earth, which did not move around a central sun, support the view (Christianidis et al. 152). Notably, Copernicus contradicted the information that is found in the Bible, receiving considerable opposition because it was considered heretical (Christianidis et al. 160).

The modern understanding of the universe is based on the fact that the universe is comprised of nine planets, whereby the earth is among them. The solar system belongs to the milky way galaxy in which galaxy refers to an island of stars in space. The modern astronomers estimate the age of the observable universe to be fourteen billion years old (Steer 178). Scientists believe that the planets orbits around the sun, which similar to the heliocentric model. The Big Bang theory is used to explain how the world is expanding, implying that distances between the galaxies increase with time (Steer 178). This is the case with the universe. The sun is among the billion stars in the Milky Way Galaxy (Steer 178).

Contribution of different people to the understanding the universe

He was a Greek philosopher and founded an academy in Athens. He development critical approaches to mathematics, which held that the universe constituted five elements as aforementioned (Hutter 333). According to him, the earth was perfect and unchanging, and stars were everlasting and divine and were embedded in the outer sphere (Hutter 333). Additionally, the heavenly motions were circular because the sphere was a perfect shape.

He was Plato’s student and believed in the geocentric view of the universe. He had similar views of Plato that the planets and stars were perfect spheres, but the earth was not. He thought that the movement of the stars and planets were circular. He was a champion observer.

Nicolaus Copernicus
He was a German, mathematician and astronomer, who was born on February 19, 1473. He held that the sun was at the center, and other planets revolved around it. He has shown that the earth orbits on its won axis (Hutter 337).

Galilei Galileo
He was born in Italy and lived a hundred years after Copernicus. He developed a telescope that could enlarge objects 20 times (Hutter 340). He used the telescope to prove the heliocentric view of the earth. His teachings were against the church doctrine and tried and given death imprisonment, although he confessed that he had done wrong (Hutter 342).

Johannes Kepler
He was German mathematician and astronomer, and he is a crucial figure in the seventeen century revolution. He is recognized as his laws regarding planetary motion, which were the basis of Isaac Newton’s theory (Foster 109). He posited that the world was created and made accessible to the natural light. He invented a refracting telescope that improved the work of Galili (Foster 109).

Isaac Newton
Isaac was born on December 25, 1642. He was a mathematician, scientist and philosopher (Foster 108). He is known for his theory of gravity and its effects on astronomical objects. He made a strong theory of heliocentric that he firmly believed it. He discovered that light shining through a prism could display the full range of colors (Foster 108). In addition, he made a theory of light, which he used to develop a telescope.

The Hubble Telescope
The telescope began to be used in 1990 and has played significant roles in understanding of the universe (Windhorst et al. 30). It has features that give an advantage over other telescopes (Windhorst et al. 30). In fact, it gives a clear view of the universe, which other telescopes cannot give. It has been critical to determining the age of the universe and the existence of dark energies. Notably, it improved the measurement concerning the age of the universe (Windhorst et al. 37). Nevertheless, it has helped the astronomers to view as many galaxies as possible and in all stages of evolution.