1. The balance system is called the vestibular system. This is a complex series of canals located next to the part of the inner ear that is responsible for hearing. Both systems are controlled by fluid that moves through the canals and disturbs small crystals in the canals. As the crystals move, they send signals to the vestibular nerve that in turn tell the brain the body is moving a particular direction (Open Stax College, 2013 p. 572). Because fluid movement is responsible for this sensation of balance and fluid moves more slowly than air, it can sometimes take the system awhile to “re-calibrate” after being disturbed by something like a roller coaster. As such when getting off of the roller coaster, the input from ones visual system tells the body that it is not moving while the crystals in the inner ear tell the brain that the body is imbalanced. The different between the two inputs can confuse the system and lead to imbalance.

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2. Type 1 diabetes mellitus often presents with a triad of common symptoms including, polyuria, or frequent urination, polydipsia or increased thirst and fluid intake and polyphagia which is a notable increase in appetite. Each of these problems is related to the changes in blood pressure that occur in patients suffering from diabetes. As the individual’s kidneys filter blood through the system, a working kidney is able to reabsorb all of the sugar in the person’s blood before it produces urine. In a patient suffering from diabetes there is so much sugar in the blood stream that the kidney is forced to reabsorb as much remaining sugar as possible but it is not able to accommodate for such high levels of sugar (Open Stax College, 2013 p. 723). Some of the excess glucose from the blood ends up in the urine where it draws more water and results in extra urine production. The excessive urine production can subsequently lead to dehydration which makes the person feel abnormally thirsty which often results in polydipsia. As more and more urine is produced, the individual might find it increasingly more difficult to quench their thirst despite drinking large amounts of water. Polyphagia can also result because of the effect diabetes has on blood sugar levels. In patients with diabetes, glucose cannot effectively enter cells because of a lack of insulin or a resistance to insulin. This essentially means that sugars from digested food cannot be turned into energy. When energy is lacking, the brain sends messages to the body that create a feeling of hunger. However, because glucose is still not being effectively turned into energy it may be impossible to make the feelings of hunger dissipate (Cryer, Davis & Shamoon, 2003).

References

  • Cryer, Phillip E., Stephen N., Davis & Shamoon, Harry (2003).  “Hypoglycemia in Diabetes,” Diabetes Care, 26(6).

  • OpenStax College (2013). Anatomy and Physiology. Retrieved from: Connections Web Site, http://cnx.org/content/col11496/latest/ on June 2, 2015.