Endocrine system
Diabetes. Endocrine system disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar levels that lasts for a long period of time. This happens due to immune system attacking and destroying insulin-producing cells.

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Potential causes of the disease. The exact causes of diabetes are unknown. Genetic and environmental factors, however, contribute to the development of the disease.
Symptoms. Increased thirst, increased hunger, frequent urination, blurred vision, headache (Yue et al, 2016).

Treatment methods of the diagnosis. There are a number of ways to manage diabetes. They include medications that lower blood sugar levels, good nutrition, a pancreas transplant, and weight loss surgery in case other ways of using weight are unadvisable for a patient.
Hyperglycemia. It is another endocrine system disorder that is characterized by high levels of glucose in the blood.

Potential causes of the disease. The most common cause of hyperglycemia is diabetes.
Symptoms. Headache, blurred vision, frequent urination. Sometimes, however, the disease might not have any symptoms, especially on the early stages of development.
Treatment methods of the diagnosis. Treatment methods include a thorough meal plan, regular exercise, medication adjustment (insulin).

Excretory system
Cystitis. The disease is characterized by inflammation of the bladder.
Potential causes of the disease. Cystitis might be the reaction to medications, the result of bacterial infection in the bladder, and the outcome of radiation therapy.

Symptoms. Symptoms include difficulty or pain when urinating, cloudy urine, blood in urine, foul-smelling urine (Rais-Bahrami et al, 2012).

Treatment methods of diagnosis. Very often cystitis is treated by removing the factors that have contributed to its development. In addition to this, antibiotics are prescribed to fight bacteria and thus remove the cause of cystitis.
Bladder cancer. Bladder cancer occurs when there is an uncontrolled growth of cells in bladder, which can lead to a tumor in the bladder (the final stage).

Causes. Just like the causes of other types of cancer, the exact causes of bladder cancer are unknown, however, some of the contributing factors include smoking, radiation, and parasitic infection.

Symptoms. Symptoms include difficulties when urinating, blood in urine, frequent urge for urination without the actual urination, back pain.
Treatment methods of diagnosis. The treatment of cancer bladder is the same and treatment approaches to other types of cancer. They include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and intravesical therapy combined with surgery. It is important to note, however, that there are no universally accepted treatment of bladder cancer (Erlich & Zlotta, 2016).

Reproductive system
Vaginal thrush. Vaginal thrush is the disease of female reproduction organs characterized by inflammation of the vagina because of the candida fungus infection.

Causes. Changes in levels of female sex hormones, use of antibiotics that harm vaginal bacteria, sexual intercourse with a person who had candida infections, weak immune system.

Symptoms. Irritation and itching of the vagina, thick and/or white vaginal discharge.
Treatment methods of the diagnosis. Vaginal thrush is usually treated by antifungal drugs combined with the decrease in sexual activity until the symptoms clear up (Holdstock, 2011).
Balanitis. Balanitis is the inflammation of the skin of the head of penis.

Causes. This disease is foremost found in uncircumcised men. Some of the causes are poor hygiene, diabetes, allergy, infections, and sexually transmitted diseases.

Symptoms. Itching, redness, irritation and/or pain.

Treatment methods of the diagnosis. As a rule, the underlying cause of the disease is determined and the treatment is directed against this course accordingly. Antifigual medication is used in case balanitis is the result of infection, instructions are often given to young boys on how to retract and clear the foreskin.

  • Holdstock, R. (2011). How to prevent and treat vaginal thrush. Practice Nurse, 41(14), 26-30.
  • Erlich, A., & Zlotta, A. R. (2016). Treatment of bladder cancer in the elderly. Investigative & Clinical Urology, 57S26-S35.
  • Rais-Bahrami, S., Friedlander, J. I., Herati, A. S., Sadek, M. A., Ruzimovsky, M., & Moldwin, R. M. (2012). Symptom profile variability of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome by age. BJU International, 109(9), 1356-1359.
  • Yue, J., Mao, X., Xu, K., Lü, L., Liu, S., Chen, F., & Wang, J. (2016). Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Diabetes Mellitus in a Chinese Population. Plos ONE, 11(4), 1-15.