IntroductionThe main role of this paper is to develop a comprehensive plan for improving the respective knowledge and understanding of the end stages of Renal Disease amongst patients and healthcare staff. This is a necessity as current knowledge of the end stages of renal disease amongst clinicians across the United States is lacking. There is a vital need and requirement for better means of education as well as practical training for healthcare staff, to ensure that patients receive optimal care and that staff can uphold the respective values and requirements of their individual clinics (Locatelli et al, 2001). This paper will also provide essential learning outcomes that will accompany the education plan and ensure that it can be implemented quickly and efficiently given the urgent nature of end stage renal disease patients. This paper will accordingly provide a learning needs assessment, respective evidence for intervention with respect to renal disease, instructional objectives and outcomes for the educational plan and its implementation within any clinical setting involving renal complications and patients (Locatelli et al, 2001).
Learning needs assessment
Gaps in knowledge between the current understanding of the end stages of renal disease and required levels of knowledge need to be quickly identified and resolved within a short period of time hence the requirement for this teaching plan (Winkelmayer et al, 2002). Gaps in knowledge can be determined via ongoing and practical assessments conducted on healthcare professionals and channeled through the progress and overall health of patients, that are receiving extensive care for renal disease. Practical assessments are most effective in distinguishing between expected and current knowledge levels as patient care relies on practical knowledge and a number of well established procedures that need to be conducted to maintain patient health and treat the end stages of renal disease (Locatelli et al, 2001). Furthermore, the end stages of renal disease require the most care from healthcare professionals and as such, need an extensive educational plan and knowledge of the outcomes of renal disease care.
Additionally, the role of Clinical Nursing Leaders (CNL’s) in hospital and emergency environments are vital to improving the knowledge of nurses and that of patients. CNL’s enter the hospital environment with a broad knowledge of patient care and experience dealing with extensive disease and treatment plans. CNL’s can be utilized to assess the knowledge of patients and their staff and ensuring that educational plans are resurrected and effectively implemented on a regular basis (Winkelmayer et al, 2002). By implementing CNL’s in every clinic and emergency environment, levels of understanding can be elevated and subsequently sustained amongst patients and healthcare professionals. It must further be stipulated to healthcare staff that their knowledge needs to be held at an exceptional level as the lives of patients rely on this knowledge and practical abilities of all staff irrespective of their backgrounds or even experiences. CNL’s can effectively provide additional levels of experience, which may be missing from a particular clinical unit dealing with patients suffering from the end stages of renal disease (Locatelli et al, 2001).
Data can be collected from respective educational facilities who are champions in dealing with the end stages of renal disease. In particular, research and data needs to be collected from CNL’s and units that specialize in the implementation of optimal starts. Considering that this is a relatively new concept, optimal start methods can be deployed via the acquisition of additional staff and more experienced healthcare professionals (Locatelli et al, 2001).
Evidence in Support of Educational Plan Intervention
Educational plan intervention is highly necessary as evidenced by Locatelli, et al. (2001), as it involves extensive therapy, constant supervision and care of the patient involved and also involves a number of key stakeholders Furthermore, Locatelli et al identify that nurses generally have a lower level of understanding of renal disease and in particular, optimal starts, which prepare the patient for the commencement of renal dialysis 90 days after their first treatment and without central line placement. Furthermore, there are a number of emotional implications, which require a higher level of education and knowledge of treatment plans associated with renal disease and association infections. Patients may develop a number of secondary diseases that further complicate their treatment plan and require that healthcare professionals have a greater level of understanding and knowledge of renal dialysis and other associated treatment plans. Winkelmayer, et al. (2002) focus on how healthcare professionals lack an extensive understanding of alternative treatment plans in the case that secondary infections develop.
Instructional Objectives
Instructional objectives associated with the proposed teaching plan include firstly, the achievement of a practical understanding of alternative treatment plans. Based on performance, this objective allows nurses and other healthcare professionals to extensively improve their knowledge and ability to perform complex procedures particularly in readying a patient for renal dialysis after 90 days of treatment and without central line placement (Locatelli et al, 2001). Requirements in this instance focuse on improving the relative condition of the patient and ensuring that they are kept in good health and are under control physically and emotionally. Criterion focuses on the ability of nurses to develop academically and practically and to be provided with the necessary experience to continue their procedures in other environments.
Other instructional objectives look at improving nurse and patient interactions and the facilitation of effective care mechanisms within nursing environments. Performance wise, this involves the patient having some influence over the way that nurses perform and also care for patients (Locatelli et al, 2001).
Teaching plan
The goal of the teaching plan is to improve the knowledge of patients and healthcare professionals and to prepare them for more adverse situations where patients are required to undergo extensive treatment plans or experience life threatening situations associated with optimal starts. The learning outcomes for the teaching plan include the achievement of performance based levels of knowledge and understanding. Furthermore, they focus on training healthcare professionals in the safe conduct of optimal starts remedies for when optimal starts do not adequately treat the patient or result in deterioration of the patient’s kidneys. Additionally, learning outcomes also look at the successful conduct of practical procedures for treating renal disease and most significantly, conducting renal dialysis on patients in certain situations and environments.
These outcomes can be achieved throughout a theoretical and practical based teaching plan that involves a number of weeks of theoretical material presented by various healthcare experts and professionals. Practical classroom examples, tests and assessments can further consolidate the preliminary knowledge on kidney dialysis and the conduct of optimal starts. A short internship can also be incorporated into the teaching plan to ensure that students can successfully apply their knowledge and ensure that patients receive a high level of care in a hospital setting and not in a classroom or associated learning center. The majority of the teaching plan relies students and professionals consolidating their knowledge and understanding of renal dialysis and optimal starts rather than simply expanding their knowledge and then randomly applying it in their proper clinic environments.
The teaching plan can include dummy resources such as power point presentations and renal dialysis equipment acquired from a clinic. Evaluation methods can include theoretical and practical assessments after each week. This ensures that students maintain and sustain their level of knowledge learnt on dialysis and optimal starts.

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  • Locatelli, F., et al. (2001). Survival and development of cardiovascular disease by modality of treatment in patients with end-stage renal disease. Journal of the American society of Nephrology, 12(11), 2411-2417.
  • Winkelmayer, et al. (2002). Health economic evaluations: the special case of end-stage renal disease treatment. Medical Decision Making, 22(5), 417-430.