Researcher is to follow APA Ethics Code to protect the rights of the participants (Cacioppo 53).Institutional review board prior to research (Cacioppo 53).
Risk/benefit ratio to make sure benefit was greater than the risk (Cacioppo 53).
Minimal risk is that the harm or discomfort is not greater then everyday life (Cacioppo 53).
Confidentiality no social injury is personal information is kept private (Cacioppo 53).
Informed Consent is individual learning the nature of the research, risk, and agree to participate (Cacioppo 53).
Privacy research is where participants can say how their personal information is given to others (Cacioppo 53).
Deception everything must be told and nothing hid from the participants (Cacioppo 53).
Debriefing where the researcher goes over the project participation with the person (Cacioppo 53).

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Importance Informed Consent
All the guidelines are important but the most important is informed consent where the participant is giving his/her permission for the researcher to use the information they provided. A researcher has the ethical responsibility to make clear to the participant what the research is about and possible risks and they must sign the consent form to agree to do the project. The research cannot lie, deceive, cheat or any fraudulent behavior can be used when working with a participant in a research project. The informed consent will be signed even if there is no risk.


“Before research can begin an Institutional Review Board reviews the ethics of the research project” (Cacioppo 53).
This is important as it informs the researcher the ethical guidelines they need to follow with doing the research not just with participants but all ethical implications. This shows that they know the guidelines prior to starting so if they do not do it ethically they cannot say they did not know.

Relevant Question
Do children have the same guidelines as adults?

  • Cacioppo, J. & Freberg, L. “Discovering Psychology: The Science of Mind, 2nd Edition,” 2015 Wadsworth