1) Herzl contends that Jews in Europe are under constant pressure and persecution. It was his view at the time that all kinds of Jews found it difficult to live in Europe under the prevailing conditions. Upper class professionals felt pressure and were not afforded any sort of professional certainty in their jobs. Middle class Jews found themselves pushed out of neighborhoods and in constant danger of various types of attacks. According to him, there was not a safe haven in Europe, and Jews were living a life where they had to be constantly on the lookout for the next danger to jump up and grab them.
2) His solution for Jewish people was to get their own land and have their own sovereign nation. He wanted it to be outside of Europe, as he feared that there would not be a way to have a peaceful state within Europe. Specifically, he put forward two potential places for the Jewish state—in Argentina or Palestine. In addition to that, he proposed that the land should be purchased by a so-called “Jewish Company.” After that, a constitution and certain rights of government would be granted, but only with the “yes” of the Jewish people, who would play a critical role in determining the future governance.
3) As mentioned, the two locations were Argentina or Palestine. Palestine is the ideal place for the Jewish state because of its close proximity to Europe and because of the origins of the Jewish people. He believes that the Jewish state in Palestine would be able to attract more Jews, thus making it stronger. In terms of language, he envisioned a multi-lingual state, with no one language dominating the conversation. He pictured the new Jewish state as being an aristocratic Republic, with the rights of human beings being protected by a constitution of the people.