How history and Philosophical foundations have contributed to current trends and professional issues in counseling.Modern counseling has been influenced greatly by the dynamics in society inclusive of complex human beings, changing social factors, and technology. Different therapeutic approaches have also been advocated for by various scholars through the years. Ancient Greek teachings defined wellness as the absence of illness but the term was later redefined to “a state of optimal health and well-being” (Myers & Sweeney, 2008, p. 484). This understanding was advocated for by the counseling profession and consequently, wellness models were developed within the profession. In 1992, Witmer and Sweeney developed the first wellness model in counseling called, the wheel of wellness. It sought to identify the correlates of health from a multidisciplinary approach. In 2000, the final wheel of wellness was developed. It described the spiritual well-being as the most important part of the wheel. Further study of these models led to the development of another model, the indivisible self (IS-Model) in 2005 by Myers and Sweeney (Myers & Sweeney, 2008, p.489). This worked with the five factors inventory for which there are different versions ranging from children to adults. This model today allows clients to identify wellness areas they consider significant for them and emphasizes the impact of decision making in achieving an optimal lifestyle.
Technology has been incorporated in counseling in view of the impact it has on both the clients and counselors. Technology has its pros and cons but professional ethics have been put in place to check on its adverse impacts. Goss and Anthony give guidelines of employing technology in therapy. The social media has been cited as a potential avenue for advertising and networking for counselors since most people spend more time on social media than on the internet based on its interactive nature (Goss & Anthony, 2009). Telephone and video-conferencing have bridged the distance between clients and counselors. I pad games have also been used by children counselors to boost their relationship and keep them engaged. Children and youth today are exposed to risks are exposed to risk factors which can be biological or environmental. Such factors include poverty, dysfunctional families, drug abuse, and violence.(Rak & Patterson, 1996).Counselors have been able to identify causes of the risks the children and youth are exposed to, help them cope with the situation and avoid such recurrent problems that would hinder their growth and development. This has thus expanded the scope of counselors to work with social policy makers for effective intervention.

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