This work in writing examines human security and how it is affected by terrorism. This study demonstrates that there are many layers in that which comprises human security and that anti-terrorism legislation and activities have not in actuality strengthened human security throughout the world.
The objective of this work in writing is to examine how it is that terrorism affects human security. Towards this end, this study will conduct a review of literature that is scholarly, academic or professional in nature and such as is considered to be credible literature resources. Terrorism has wrought many changes in society and particularly in a democracy such as the United States. Some of these changes impact the ability of individuals in democracy in their free movement making it more complicated to board planes and the like however; since the tragedy of September 11, 2001, there has been an increased need for security measures that positively affect the safety and security of human beings because terrorism is deadly and strikes generally without warning resulting in the loss of lives and the resulting tragedy in the lives that remain.
Measures Differ Across Domains
In order to determine the level of threat that exists from terrorism there are many factors utilized in the analyses of the Department for International Development including that of ‘structure’ which requires an analysis of “long term factors underlying conflict” stated to include: (1) security factors; (2) political factors; (3) economic factors; and (4) social factors (Department for International Development, 7). Additionally it is reported that the second factor that must be considered is that of the ‘actors’ which requires analysis of: (1) interests; (2) relations; (3) capacities; (4) peace agendas; and (5) incentives (Department for International Development, 7) Stated third is the factor of ‘dynamics’ which requires analysis of: (1) long-term trends; (2) triggers for increased violence; (3) managing conflict; and (4) likely future conflict scenarios (Department for International Development , p.7). The main concepts requiring analysis are those of: (1) political economy which is an approach with a focus on “interests and rationality of those engaged and those benefitting from conflict”; (2) grievances and greed; (3) structure and actors and their interactions; (4) different layers of conflict including local, national, regional and international; and (5) the dynamic character of conflict (Department for International Development, 7). However, from the view of the World Bank the analyses required is quite different and the UN System Staff College views the analyses required even differently. Therefore, the question posed is how to actually analyze the impact that terrorism has upon human security.
Human Rights Violations and Terrorism
In a report of the Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee (2013) entitled “Terrorism Has A ‘Very Real and Direct Impact’ on Human Rights, High Commissioner Navi Pillay Tells Committee” it is reported that spoken of were the “devastating consequences of terrorism on the ability of individuals to fully enjoy their rights. Her thoughts were with the victims around the world whose rights to life, liberty and security had been violated. The impact was felt across society” (2013, p.1). The report goes on to relate that terrorism “destabilizes governments, undermines civil jeopardizes peace and security, and threatens economic and social development” (Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee, 1). It was noted that without the adoption of an approach that was both “holistic and integrated” and one that provided protection to human rights and held respect for the “rule of law” that due to the lack of what are principles that are fundamental in nature that such an approach would be “counterproductive” (Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee, 1). There were reported to have been violations of human rights in the context of counter-terrorism including such as “extrajudicial killings, enforced disappearances and torture” (Security Council Counter Terrorism Committee, 1). It is additionally reported that in order to get past the criminal justice system requirements that authorities are believed to have been using detention on an administrative level along with “control orders, terrorist listings, and the use of immigration and deportation laws” (Security Council Counter Terrorism Committee, 1).
Psychological, Economic, and Political Effect
Stated as another effect that terrorism has on human security is the fact that due to the psychological effect of terrorism that there will be effects on society of a long-term nature which ultimately will impact “how future generations will build their human relationships. Out of fear for protagonists of terrorism, distrust and suspicion will characterize the interactions rather than rust and mutual solidarity in building the future” (Frerks and Goldewijk, 134). In addition, activities of terrorism have made conflicts occurring on the cultural and political levels between communities and affected relations among various nations with a growth in conflict between Islamic and Western societies likely to result in distrust on both sides of a long-term nature. At the same time distrust is creating a chasm that grows deeper in the areas of racial, ethnic, religious and cultural conflicts among Muslim and Western societies. It is reported that this “has given rise to the phenomenon of ‘home terrorism’ which is a manifestation of ‘cultural-identity conflicts’ between Islamic and Western cultures inside Western countries” (Frerks and Goldewijk, 135). The same is true in the Middle East with racial, religious and ethnic differences resulting in terrorist acts within the Middle Eastern society. Additionally, terrorism has negatively affected economies on a national scale and ultimately the economy on a global scale which results in negative impacts on both security and peace throughout the world. For example, it is reported in the work of International IDEA that the amount spent for the budgets of both police and military throughout the world is growing faster than the amount devoted to reducing poverty or in the area of health treatment and prevention. The problem noted is that while this type of aid may result in stabilizing effects it also is used to pacify those who feel a threat to their security which ultimately does not render the individual, community, state or nation more secure but instead just provides the appearance of more security since there is spending in the areas of so-called security measures. It is reported that monetary aid that is provided to less developed countries by countries that are more developed is provided with strings attached and those strings are connected to anti-terrorist conditions which the general population has little control over meeting and this means that these less-developed countries do not receive the needed aid and generally aid for food and health care and prevention measures (International IDEA, paraphrased). It is reported specifically that those countries who receive US Agency for International Development (USAID) assistance are under a requirement to “sign agreements conforming to anti-terrorist conditions as contractually expressed” (International IDEA, 144-5).
Summary and Conclusion
This work in writing has examined the effects of terrorism upon human security and has clearly demonstrated that a great deal of difference exists in the analyses of what constitutes human security. In addition, this study has shown that while anti-terrorist legislation and laws are supposed to increase human security that this is not actually the case in many instances. In addition, human security has many layers and included in these layers that comprise human security are human and individual rights and as this study has shown in the name of anti-terrorist activities human and individual rights are being alarmingly violated. Finally, human security includes access to necessary food and health care treatment and prevention and this study has demonstrated that anti-terrorist conditions on developing countries prior to receiving aid has resulted in the loss of aid to many countries and that the institution of anti-terrorist requirements are largely beyond the control of those desperately in need of such aid.
- Conflict Prevention Thematic Guidance Note. NHDR Occasional Paper 3. United National Development Program. 2013. Pp.1-167. Retrieved from: http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/nhdr_conflict_gn.pdf. [Accessed 12 Apr 2016]
- Democracy and Terrorism: The Impact of the Anti. International IDEA. 2015. pp. 1-245. Retrieved from: http://www.idea.int/publications/dchs/upload/dchs_vol2_sec4_2.pdf. [Accessed 12 Apr 2016]
- Frerks, Georg and Goldewijk, Berma Klein. Human Security and International Security. Wageningen Academic Pub. 2007. Pp.1-259. Retrieved from: https://books.google.com/books?id=jxaConXk2TUC&dq=TERRORISM+effect+on+human+security&source=gbs_navlinks_s. [Accessed 12 Apr 2016].
- Terrorism Has A ‘Very Real and Direct Impact’ on Human Rights, High Commissioner Navi Pillay Tells Committee. Security Council Counter-Terrorism Committee. 2013. p.1. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/en/sc/ctc/news/2013-10-31_UNHCHR_CTC_Briefing.html. [Accessed 12 Apr 2016].
- The Decline in Global Violence: Evidence, Explanation and Contestation. Human Security Report. 2013. pp.1-167. Retrieved from: http://www.hsrgroup.org/docs/Publications/HSR2013/HSRP_Report_2013_140226_Web.pdf. [Accessed 12 Apr 2016].