1. The four main pieces of information a potential research subject must have to give informed consent include understanding what the research is about, what implications are involved in participating, what consequences could happen in the future, and have adequate reasoning faculties. It is important for the research subject to know what the research is about so that that person knows what they are being tested for and why. They must know what the researchers hope to discover through the testing. It is important that the research subject knows what the side effects are now, in the immediate future, and in the long-term. Finally, the research subject must have the mental ability to comprehend all information provided to give informed consent.
2. Informed consent and voluntary participation are related because by receiving and accepting the terms outlined in informed consent, the research subject is voluntarily participating in the research study.
4. Potential participants must be given the potential benefit information. This means that it is necessary to disclose what the researchers hope to discover. This may mean a cure for a disease, a new preventative for a disease, information about how a particular subject began, and other aspects. This allows the potential participant to decide whether or not the research is a positive one and that the benefits outweigh the risks for participation. When giving benefit information, the researcher needs to be as specific as possible. However, it is also necessary to be adamant that there is no guarantee of these benefits occurring.
5. Potential benefits must be provided all risk information. This especially applies to health-related research. When trying new vaccines, for example, the participants need to know what negative side effects may occur. The participant needs to be giving specific information about the short- term and long-term potential effects.
8. By collecting confidential information, researchers do not initially know who provided the information. However, the information and the provider can be linked in later times. By collecting anonymous information, it is impossible for researchers to determine who provided the information and will be unable to link the information to the subject. Confidential information may be preferred for medical research. Anonymous information may be preferred for other research, such as psychological, economical, demographical, or research about personal beliefs.