1. Torah: The written law of Jewish faith and culture comprised of all biblical laws pertaining to Judaism. The Torah, or Hebrew Bible, was given to Moses by God on Mount Sinai. It is also known or referred by non-Jews as the Old Testament, as well as the Chumash, Pentateuch or Five Books of Moses.
2. Yom Kippur: Accepted by most that are Jewish as being the most important holiday of Judaism, Yom Kippur means “Day of Atonement”. According to the Jewish calendar Yom Kippur occurs on the 10th day of Tishri, or seventh month. As a total Sabbath, Yom Kippur is observed for 25 hours and involves, for example, fasting, attending synagogue and no work. According to the Jewish faith, Yom Kippur provides the opportunity to make amends for transgressions against God; a way of demonstrating repentance and make amends to God before sealing the books where such transgressions are recorded.
3. Hasidism: Originating in the 18th century, Hasidism was founded by Ukrainian Rabbi Yisroel ben Eliezer (1698-1760) as essentially a denial of mainstream Judaism and it emphasis on Talmudic learning. Hasidism (or Chasidism) emphasized mysticism and personal experience as a path to G-d. The Hasidic people live in sects who are organized around a “Rebbe”, or spiritual leader.
4. Moses: Born to parents who were Israelites and adopted by the daughter of the Egyptian Pharaoh (perhaps Thutmose II or Thutmose III), Moses (c.1391-1271 BCE) would eventually lead the Jews out of Egypt, as directed by God. He is also responsible for transcribing the Torah on Mt. Sinai as well as leading the Jews through the wilderness for forty years until arriving at the land of Canaan.
5. Holy of Holies: The room known as the Holy of Holies was the innermost and most sacred area of the ancient tabernacle of Moses (temporary place of worship while the Israelites of Moses’ day was in the desert) and temple of Jerusalem. Constructed as a perfect cube, it housed the Ark of the Covenant. The Holy of Holies could only be accessed by the high priest, who was only permitted to enter on Yom Kippur in order to atone for his own sins and those of the people. It is also the place where God was to have appeared.
6. Sabbath: Known in Hebrew as Shabbat, Sabbath refers to the Jewish day of rest, a way of recognition for God’s six-day creation of heaven and earth. The Sabbath is an observance of the day that God rested, the seventh day. As such, Jews must refrain from work. The Sabbath begins before sunset on Friday evening and ends when three stars appear on Saturday night.
Fill In/Short Answer
1. Tanakh is an acronym for what three parts of Hebrew Scriptures?
The Jewish canon recognized for its three traditional subdivisions: Torah, Nevi’im, and Ketuvim.
2. Jews today are divided into what three main branches?
Orthodox, Conservative and Reform
3. Jewish young people celebrate ________________ at the age of ____ to mark their ‘coming of age.’
Boys celebrate Bar Mitzvahs at age 13, whereas girls celebrate Bat Mitzvahs at 12 years of age.
4. The two faiths that sprang from Judaism are:
Christianity and Islam
5. Why did the Zionist movement begin?
With origins in the 19th century, Zionism is a movement based upon Jewish nationalism that posits a return to Zion, or the land of Israel. It sprang from the persecution of Jews throughout Europe.
6. During the Holocaust, what was found to be the most efficient way to kill the Jews?
Through their use of poison gas. The practice was referred by the Germans as euthanasia.
7. Who was the King responsible for building the 1st Temple?
False 1. The Jewish people know God as a God of Movement
True 2. Judaism has no real creed
False 3. Humanistic Jews are monotheists
True 4. The first temple was built and destroyed before the time of Jesus
False 5. Christianity follows Sarah’s son, Islam the son of Hagar, Abraham’s concubine
True 6. Mysticism evolved in the Jewish faith in the 20th Century
False 7. Sabbath is celebrated only annually in Jewish homes
1. God made a universal covenant with all of humanity through (SEE TEXT!)
c) Jesus Christ
2. Which of the following would not be on a kosher diet:
d) Pepperoni Pizza
3. Moses was, by birth
4. This sect of Judaism DOES NOT ordain women