Organizational culture plays an integral role in the activities and operations of organizations such as management innovation and practices. Vaccaro et al. (2012) argue that management practices are what managers or organizational heads do as part of their job, and those of employees on a daily basis and the management of these relies heavily on organizational culture. Arguably, organizational culture comprises of various dimensions or elements, which include the nature of humans, the relationships among people, people’s relationship with the broad environment, activity, time, as well as space (Dickson et al., 2012, p 484). First, the nature of people in an organization, whether changeable or unchangeable, influences organizational culture. The good nature of individuals means that the culture of a particular organization will be positive (Schein, 2010), and this applies to the other dimensions too.
Aspects such as routines, rituals, and systems often exist in organizational environments, and these make significant contributions to organizational cultures. In the opinion of Frost et al. (1985), routines are often taken for granted in organizations although they are fundamental to organizational life and culture. They contribute to organizational culture as they give an order or specific patterns in the way the lives of organizational stakeholders are. On the other hand, organizational rituals for which organizational routines assume significance can become vital aspects of professional or organizational culture. Frost et al. (1985) define rituals are prescribed activities that are often rigidly observed in ceremonial or solemn fashion and have symbolic significance. Essentially, rituals contribute to organizational cultures as they help in the reinforcement of prevailing paradigms. Besides, rituals play an integral role in identifying organizations with specific cultures (Frost et al., 1985, p 268). Organizational and other external systems such as education also have an influence on the culture of organizations. Rees-Caldwell & Pinnington (2013) articulate that just like systems such as media, politics, the media and the like help shape national cultures, organizational systems help shape the culture of organizations. Bredin (2008) postulates that with effective organization systems, internal discipline among organizational members can be prompted, and this consequently results in positive organizational culture.

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Moreover, the influence of organizational stories on culture is irrefutable. Cameron and Quinn (2005) argue that organizational stories are fundamental to the creation and sustenance of organizational culture. Also, by serving to locate culture in the development and history of organizations, stories influence organizational culture. In addition, through stories, the nature and limits of organizational culture are demonstrated, and it is through this that stories influence the aforementioned culture.

Brooks (2009) opines that although direct management is required to create a change in the behavior and culture of organizations, organizational structures have a significant influence on the two perspectives. Organizational structure refers to how roles and functions are delegated to members of an organization. Essentially, there are specific cultural perspectives that can be found in large organizations but not in small organizations. Thus, when it come to organizational structure, it is imperative to note that perspectives such as size influence the behavior of organizational members and consequently the culture of organizations (Vaccaro et al., 2012, p 29). Apart from the size perspective of organizational structure, there is also a clear link between the design of organization structure and culture (Kähkönen et al., 2013, p 371).

Specific organizational structures could see the focus shifts to small, matrix, individual, and bureaucratic or formal organizations. In each of these structures, specific cultural differences are evident. For instance, small entrepreneurial organizations insist on power culture, and this is where the owner of the organization is an integral force in determining culture and behavior. On the other hand, bureaucratic or formal organizations insist on the role culture, and this is where role or functions are delegated and coordinated among organizational members. In matrix organizations, the task culture is evident, and in this, employees tend to hold joint or multiple responsibilities and they work autonomously. For individual-type organizations, the individual is the key feature, and culture revolves around the individual.

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