What are the two main lines of argument against the theory that technology is applied science? Multiple theories address the concept of technology and its application to various disciplines such as science, social studies or technological studies. However, the theories that address the specific relationships between technology and its application to science surfaces various concerns that the theory of technology applied to science brings about challenges with categorizing social and group theories. There are a number of challenges that are illustrated when technology is used in scientific means.

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Scientific knowledge appears to play a small role in the development of some of the various technological sciences. Apparently, technological knowledge is separate and independent to the artifacts of science. Additionally, the lack of a clear and concise definition of science and technology draws more attention to the limitations of each role. If both are not well interpreted, than how can technology be thoroughly argued that it may or may not play a crucial role in science advancements? This lack of information and clarity certainly is counterintuitive (Connors, 1992).

Additional arguments displaying that technology as applied science may be pervasive, due to the technological knowledge being downplayed. Perhaps, the individual technologies appear not to be seen as a dependent force on basic science. For example, Edwin Layton describes that engineers and inventors utilize knowledgeable traditions to shape scientific theories rather than technological endeavors. Basically, engineers developed theoretical creations drawing primarily from research, not pure science, and not technology. Technology has a level of influence, however, the argument displays that problem solving in applied sciences depend more on concepts than the technological knowledge (Sansbury, 2014).

What is Kranzberg’s first law, and what does it mean?
Kranzberg’s culture and technology serves as a composition that helps humankind and technology intermingle. Invention is regarded as the first step to composing an intervention to use historical text to critically think about contemporary issues. Kranzberg suggests that the laws among technology and history are not laws, but rather commandments illustrated through truisms deriving from the development of technology as well as how sociocultural change has occurred when both are entwined (Connors, 1992). The first law exemplifies how technology’s inherent nature is inherently neutral. It does not display any impacts that could ensue a positive or negative outcome. However, Kranzberg does emphasize that his first law supplies humanity with the information and knowledge to allow them to be aware of technology’s capabilities throughout various circumstances. Further information of the first law indicates that public awareness and perception can illustrate that technological advances can revolutionized over time. Although there may be ramifications to new advances in technology it is important to emphasize according to the first law, that technology is neutral (Sansbury, 2014).

Technology drives change. These advancements are inevitable, and provide the public the ability to grow as well in society. Nonetheless, as Kranzberg suggests that technology is neither good nor bad, the first law indicates that humankind and technology must co-exist and find a means to balance in society. As the technological age continues to grow, and our society revolves solely around computers, ipod, television, livestreaming, or the internet, ensuring the perfect balance is a challenge (Sansbury, 2014). Several questions arise with this first law indicating that should an individual give up on all technology for specific periods of time? On the other hand, the discipline of the first law emphasizes that creating and setting boundaries between humankind and technology is truly to key to maintaining the neutral composition initially created by Kranzberg. This first law is possible, however, as society develops and re-develops itself, the dimensions of this first law or theory must be conceptualized, and made specifically finite in the society that is being applied to, thus, creating the essential boundaries required to be neutral (Sansbury, 2014).

  • Connors, Robert. (1992). Dreams and Play: Historical Method and Methodology.
  • Methods and Methodology in Composition Research. Eds. Gesa Kirsch and Patricia Sullivan. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP.
  • Sansbury, M. (2014). Emergent Disciplines and Cultural Divisions: Melvin’s Kranzberg’s “Law of Technology” and New Humanities. Thesis, Georgia State University. http://schlarworks.gsu.edu/english_theses/17