There are many different factors that are associated with lethal violence; some of the contributing factors toward lethal violence include the availability of weapons, use of drugs and alcohol, and escalation of violence (Assessing Lethal and Extremely Dangerous Behavior, 2013). The problem analysis triangle, or crime triangle, states that violence is likely to occur when a likely offender and a suitable target come together in a place where there is not a capable guardian present (Center for Problem Oriented Policing, 2013). By working to apply the problem analysis triangle, three possible initiatives to counter gun violence are:

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• Increasing awareness of appropriate levels of gun safety
• Increasing the availability of self-defense classes which work to not only provide self-defense training but teach when the application of the same is appropriate.
• Increasing patrols of law enforcement officers in areas where rates of lethal violence are higher and thus likely to reoccur.

Examples of initiatives outside of the criminal justice system that may impact crime and criminal issues include construction, environmental design, and neighborhood watch systems. In Phoenix, neighborhoods affected by rises in construction going on within the area have seen increases in criminal activity within the area; though the city started the construction projects as a means of bettering the area, this is one such initiative that has had a negative result in crime and criminal issues within the area (Holdsworth, 2013). Other initiatives, including increasing natural surveillance through environmental design and creating neighborhood watch programs work to decrease criminal activities without the intervention of the criminal justice system, providing benefits to residents in neighborhoods who participate in such programs (Center for Community Progress, 2013).