Malaria is health disorder that has raised global concerns and interventions for many decades. Malaria is an infections health disorder that essentially caused by Plasmodium that infects the red blood cells of human beings. Consequently, there are five types of malaria namely; Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae and finally Plasmodium knowlesi. Malaria is primarily transferred from one person to another through the Anopheles mosquitoes which are female mosquitoes. Nonetheless, malaria is treatable and consequently preventable (Breeveld, Vreden & Grobusch, 2012).
Malaria occurs in an individual when he/she begins to experience a series of pain, fever, and chilliness amongst other symptoms. Research has shown that Anopheles mosquitoes transmit malaria from one person to another after biting an individual who is already infected with malaria. The parasite then develops in the intestines of the mosquito before moving to salivary glands of the mosquito. Thus, as the mosquito bites another person, malaria infection is transmitted to that person. The parasite is the transferred to the liver of that person through the blood stream before being taken back to the blood stream once more. Once it has reached the blood stream, the parasite invades the corpuscles. On the contrary, the parasite divides and multiplies significantly in the liver with a single parasite giving rise to approximately 30, 000 daughter parasites. Other than being transmitted through the female mosquitoes, research has also shown that malaria can also been transmitted through injection and blood transfusions from an infected person to the other (Wiese, 2012).

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Studies have shown that malaria is amongst the most deadly disease across the world and is more rampant in Africa. More specifically, cases of malaria are substantially more reported in Ethiopia compared to any other nation. Reports have shown that approximately 68% of the Ethiopian people live in areas that are infected with malaria with about 75% of the population being reported to have been infected with the disease (Ngarakana-Gwasira et al., 2016). Malaria affects children more than adults. On that regard, statistics that have been redirected to children health indicates that approximately 300 to 500 million people are usually ascertained with cases of malaria every year (Pinault & Hunter, 2011).

Most cases of malaria are reported from sub-Saharan Africa with about 2 million cases of death being reported each year from the disorder. Nonetheless, it is also worth to highlight that malaria is rare in the United States with less than 1,300 cases of infection being reported in the country for the past decade. In fact, a majority of the cases that were reported occurred to military personnel and other groups of travelers who got infected outside the US. Therefore, it is logical to state that other than the United States being less prone to malaria, the citizens of the country including the health personnel and other relevant stakeholders should be given credit for supporting the management programs that have been developed and redirected towards addressing the disease (Nyarko & Cobblah, 2014).

One of the common risk factors that lead to the development of malaria is its severity in young children. Besides that, cases of malaria are more in particular world nations compared to the others as portrayed by few cases in the United States compared to most cases that are usually recorded in Africa. Besides that, malaria is more prone in areas where management and prevention measures are not followed to the latter compared to areas where malaria management precautions are followed to the latter. For instance, the fact that Anopheles mosquitoes breeds in stagnant waters means that it is more prone in areas where stagnant waters are not managed accordingly. Far from that, using infected syringes and needles from people who are infected with malaria to their counterparts who are not can also be regarded as a risk factor (Breeveld, Vreden & Grobusch, 2012).

Various proven ways can be employed to prevent cases of malaria. To begin with, it is advisable to apply repellant and other body ointments that can assist in keeping mosquitoes away. Besides that, people should avoid travelling of going to swampy and damp places because they are the core breeding areas for mosquitoes. Stagnant waters in irrigation schemes and ditches should also be drained to destroy the breeding places form mosquitoes. More importantly, we should be careful not to allow human activities to contribute towards the development of malaria. On that regard, agricultural harvest that can increase the exposure to mosquito bites should be stored well and even sprayed with pesticides to prevent it from laying a foundation for the development of malaria (Nyarko & Cobblah, 2014).

There are various symptoms that are substantially associated with cases of malaria. To begin with, malaria can lead to nausea, headaches, fever, and even chillness of the body. Consequently, symptoms of malaria can develop as fast as even seven days after having mosquito bites with the earlier symptoms being flu-like disorders. Other symptoms such as constant diarrhea, shivering and even muscle aches can follow later on during the development of the disorder. Nonetheless, malaria can even trigger symptoms such as profuse shaking and concurrent fever that can last for hours and even days (Ngarakana-Gwasira et al., 2016).

Malaria can be treated. However, the method that is substantially employed to treat and address cases of malaria depends on the underlying nature of the disease including where it was acquired, when and even the species of malaria that has transmitted the disease. Patient’s age, whether she is pregnant or not and even his/her underlying allergy conditions should also be included as part of the protocols that should be used before determining the right medication for the disorder. A majority of malaria medications are delivered orally through the mouth to the patients (Chirebvu, Chimbari & Ngwenya, 2014). Besides that, patients who are severely sick can receive the treatment through intravenous lines. Other countries such as the United States are more developed in malaria management interventions and have been successful in delivering antimalarial drugs in some parts of the nation. Nonetheless, the specific medications that have been significant enough in the management of malaria include; Quinine, Chloroquine, Atovaquone-proguanil, Doxycycline, Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, Mefloquine and even Artemisin derivatives. Other medicine specifications such as primaquine can be used to treat the disorder as it lays dormant in the liver. However, care should be taken when taking primaquine. For example, pregnant women should not be allowed to take the medication because it can trigger complications. Thus, proper screening of malaria should be carried out to ensure that the medication that is delivered complies with the health conditions of the patients and to avoid the development of complications (Chirebvu, Chimbari & Ngwenya, 2014).

To sum up, it is substantially important to highlight that malaria can be transmitted from one person to another at a very fast rate if proper precautions and management initiatives are not put in place. On that regard, people should be enlightened about the underlying structures that are involved in the development of the disorder including its prevention measures. It should be noted, the fact that malaria can be prevented means that if proper precautions and prevention measures are put in place, it will be substantially easier for all world nations to prevent and control the disorder accordingly. People should also be cautious and take the required medications as soon as they note some of the symptoms of the disease. By so doing, it will be easier for people to manage and prevent the disease from causing more damage (Ngarakana-Gwasira et al., 2016).

Annotated Bibliography

Breeveld, F. J., Vreden, S. G., & Grobusch, M. P. (2012). History of malaria research and its contribution to the malaria control success in Suriname: A review. Malar J Malaria Journal, 11(1), 95. doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-95
The purpose of this article is to discuss the history of the progress of malaria and how it has been handled so far. The article is relevant to my research area in the sense that it provides an insight of how cases of malaria are being addressed in various parts of the world. More importantly, the fact that the article has gone through a series of reviews means that it is reliable in the completion of my assignment.

Chirebvu, E., Chimbari, M. J., & Ngwenya, B. N. (2014). Assessment of Risk Factors Associated with Malaria Transmission in Tubu Village, Northern Botswana. Malaria Research and Treatment, 2014, 1-10. doi:10.1155/2014/403069
This article has been substantially used to discuss some of the risk factors of malaria. It should be noted that this paper is a research paper that includes the analysis of risk factors that contributes to the development of the disorder. Besides that, this journal has been reviewed and analyzed in various events. Thus, it would be relevant in the completion of this assignment.

Ngarakana-Gwasira, E. T., Bhunu, C. P., Masocha, M., & Mashonjowa, E. (2016). Assessing the Role of Climate Change in Malaria Transmission in Africa. Malaria Research and Treatment, 2016, 1-7. doi:10.1155/2016/7104291
The core purpose of this article is to analyze the role of climate change in the spread of malaria. More specifically, the article focuses on Africa that constitutes a relatively large portion of cases of malaria across the world. The article has also been analyzed and reviewed for a number of times. Thus, it is significant in the completion of this research paper.

Nyarko, S. H., & Cobblah, A. (2014). Sociodemographic Determinants of Malaria among Under-Five Children in Ghana. Malaria Research and Treatment, 2014, 1-6. doi:10.1155/2014/304361
The core purpose of this article is to analyze cases of malaria in children who are under the age of five years. Other than highlighting its riskiness in young children, the article also discusses some of the prevention measures that can employed to address the issue. Also, the article is peer-reviewed meaning that it will provide a healthy platform for the completion of this assignment by enriching the research with various pieces of relevant information.

Pinault, L. L., & Hunter, F. F. (2011). Malaria Knowledge, Concern, Land Management, and Protection Practices among Land Owners and/or Managers in Lowland versus Highland Ecuador. Malaria Research and Treatment, 2011, 1-12. doi:10.4061/2011/765125
This, article has been written to discuss various aspects of malaria including its knowledge, how it should be prevented and how it can be managed. Just like the above used articles, the journal has been subjected to various reviews and research analysis that have been constructive in the provision of healthy conclusions about the disease. Thus, I find the article important because of its reliability and resourcefulness in addressing the issues of malaria.

Wiese, M. (2012). Integrated approaches to malaria control – addressing new challenges to malaria research. Malaria Journal, 11(Suppl 1). doi:10.1186/1475-2875-11-s1-p104
The core purpose of this article is to address the control measures that should be employed in addressing cases of malaria in Africa. Besides that, the article also offers an educational ground for explaining some of the techniques that can be adopted and incorporated into the contemporary society to prevent the progression of the disease. On that regard and given that the article has been subjected to numerous reviews means that it can offer a great ground for the completion of malaria research.