Two major types of cancer occur exclusively in man: prostate and testicular cancer. The aim of this paper is to provide a brief overview of the risk factors contributing to the development of male reproductive cancers.
It is important to note that some risk factors are relevant for prostate cancers while other causes appear to affect the development of prostate tumors in a more considerable manner. However, genetic factors are important in both cases. DNA damage and chromosomal alternations increase the risk of male reproductive cancers significantly. Studies reveal that genetic alternations alone are responsible for 25% of the testicular cancer cases. Specifically, it is changes and mutations in the SRY gene that contribute to the tumor development. The p53 gene is the critical tumor suppressor and its changes increase the risk of cancel cells’ evolvement. Moreover, under- or over’ expression of a number of Y chromosome genes plays a considerable role in stimulating the growth of cancer cells and, thus, appears to be the major genetic risk factor for the development of prostate cancer. Some role of the risk factor is attributed to genetic disorders. For example, the research shows men suffering from that Mixed Gonadal Dysgenesis, the Down syndrome, and the Prader-Willi are more exposed to the risk of reproductive cancers.
The male reproductive system does not suffer from cancer exclusively for genetic reasons. Environmental risk factors can play a critical role in stimulating the growth of tumors. In the case of prostate cancer, medication drugs, increasing age, viral infections, and diet obesity and all proven to be significant factors. Testicular cancer risk increases as a result of smoking, HIV/AIDS, inguinal hernia, and certain occupational exposures. It is worth noting that men between 20 and 35 years of age are more prone to testicular cancer.
All things considered, male reproductive cancers are caused both by genetic and environmental factors.
- Tvrda, E., Agarwal, A., & Alkuhaimi, N. (2015). Male reproductive cancers and infertility: a mutual relationship. International journal of molecular sciences, 16(4), 7230-7260.