Introduction
The educational attainment differences amongst minority students have been well documented (Conchas G.O. (2007) Structuring failure and success: Understanding the variability in Latino School Engagement. Harvard Educational Review 71 (3) 475- 505). Minority students tend to perform worse in school and are more likely to drop out of school (Ogbu J.U. (1987) Variability in Minority School Performance: A Problem in Search of an Explanation. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 18 (4) 312-334). However, determining why minority students perform worse in academics is difficult. Multiple factors are believed to influence minority students in their educational successes.

You're lucky! Use promo "samples20"
and get a custom paper on
"Minorities Annotated Outline"
with 20% discount!
Order Now

Minority Status & Expectations
The term minority is used to describe an individual from a different country, immigrating to the United States. These individuals often have cultures that deviate from mainstream society (Conchas G.O. (2007) Structuring failure and success: Understanding the variability in Latino School Engagement. Harvard Educational Review 71 (3) 475- 505).
Some researchers assert Asian Americans are not minorities (Ngo B., Lee S.J. (2007) Complicating the Image of Model Minority Success: A Review of Southeast Asian American Education. Review of Educational Research 77 (4) 415-453).
I believe the assumption that Asian Americans are not minorities is based on educational attainment and the group’s cultural successes as a whole.
Ngo & Lee argue that there is a great deal of diversity amongst Asian minorities present in the United States and their educational attainments and successes in academia tend to vary by culture (Ngo B., Lee S.J. (2007) Complicating the Image of Model Minority Success: A Review of Southeast Asian American Education. Review of Educational Research 77 (4) 415-453).
The model minority stereotype assumes “the political structures of American society allows for success and achievement of the American Dream” (Ngo B., Lee S.J. (2007) Complicating the Image of Model Minority Success: A Review of Southeast Asian American Education. Review of Educational Research 77 (4) 415-453).
In my personal experiences I have found that some minorities that enter the country illegally may be apprehensive about pursuing opportunities out of fear of deportation.

Factors Influencing the Achievement of Minority Students

Differences in academia may be attributed to cultural and linguistical differences present between the dominant group in the school and the minority students (Ogbu J.U. (1987) Variability in Minority School Performance: A Problem in Search of an Explanation. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 18 (4) 312-334).
The initial social and linguistical barriers present disappear over time. This directly influences the child’s educational successes (Ogbu J.U. (1987) Variability in Minority School Performance: A Problem in Search of an Explanation. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 18 (4) 312-334).
Societal factors directly influence the opportunities available to minorities (Ogbu J.U. (1987) Variability in Minority School Performance: A Problem in Search of an Explanation. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 18 (4) 312-334).
Inequalities in education directly influence the type of job or skill the minority student can acquire
Some research has shown that teachers and administrators have lower expectations of minority students.
Inequalities are still present in the job market. This provides the assumption that minority student work hard and are not rewarded.
Historically, minorities faced barriers that prevented them from accessing a good job. Ogbu expands on this in providing the example of African Americans in the late 1800’s. Even though these individuals may have worked hard in school, there were few opportunities available to them.
I believe that education can sometimes be intimidating. If a child does not see the value of education he or she may not be inclined to pursue it. Furthermore, if a child does not have educated parents, they may believe that they do not need an education.

Types of Minorities
Voluntary minorities tend to immigrate to the United States for economic growth, political or social reasons (Conchas G.O. (2007) Structuring failure and success: Understanding the variability in Latino School Engagement. Harvard Educational Review 71 (3) 475- 505).
Examples of voluntary minorities include: “Japanese, Koreans, Chinese, Cuban Americans, Filipinos, and West Indians” (Conchas G.O. (2007) Structuring failure and success: Understanding the variability in Latino School Engagement. Harvard Educational Review 71 (3) 475- 505).
Involuntary Minorities tend to have immigrated to the United States for reasons outside of their control. These reasons include: “slavery, conquest or colonization” (Conchas G.O. (2007) Structuring failure and success: Understanding the variability in Latino School Engagement. Harvard Educational Review 71 (3) 475- 505).
Examples of involuntary minorities include: “African Americans, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Native Americans” (Conchas G.O. (2007) Structuring failure and success: Understanding the variability in Latino School Engagement. Harvard Educational Review 71 (3) 475- 505).
Although I believe the reason for immigrating to the United States may influence the first few generations, I believe the reasoning is less emphasized after a few generations have lived in the country.

Types of Immigrants & Educational Disparities
Some immigrants tend to assimilate better than others
Asians tend to do better in school than other minority groups (Ogbu J.U. (1987) Variability in Minority School Performance: A Problem in Search of an Explanation. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 18 (4) 312-334).
Some research has suggested that there is a great deal of variability in term of academic achievement amongst Latinos (Ogbu J.U. (1987) Variability in Minority School Performance: A Problem in Search of an Explanation. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 18 (4) 312-334).
The reasoning affecting the immigrant’s decision to move to the United States tends to influence their academic performance (voluntary vs. involuntary minorities) (Ogbu J.U. (1987) Variability in Minority School Performance: A Problem in Search of an Explanation. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 18 (4) 312-334).
In my own personal experiences, I have found that certain cultures tend to place a higher importance on education.

Conclusion
Educational disparities amongst minority students can be attributed to multiple factors. The initial reason for immigrating to the United States may influence the student’s perception of opportunities present. Furthermore, many minorities immigrating to the United States are often attracted to the prospect of the American dream. However, obtaining the American dream is difficult. Linguistical barriers, societal barriers and cultural barriers further amplify these challenges. All of these factors are indicators as to why minority students perform worse in academia.

    References
  • Conchas G.O. (2007) Structuring failure and success: Understanding the variability in Latino School Engagement. Harvard Educational Review 71 (3) 475- 505.
  • Ngo B., Lee S.J. (2007) Complicating the Image of Model Minority Success: A Review of Southeast Asian American Education. Review of Educational Research 77 (4) 415-453
  • Ogbu J.U. (1987) Variability in Minority School Performance: A Problem in Search of an Explanation. Anthropology & Education Quarterly 18 (4) 312-334.