Colonization of Islamic world by European powers began in the 18th century, leading it to grave consequences since the principles of colonization seriously contradict the system of the Islamic countries. Although many countries were affected by colonization, the ways they dealt with colonizers were diverse. Hence, while Egyptians took drastic changes and founded Muslim Brotherhood, an organization which was later treated as terroristic, the approach chosen by Pakistan and India was associated with the peaceful propaganda of Islamic Revivalism.
Muslim Brotherhood was an organization which occurred in 1928 with an intention to provide mutual support to the Islamic society. However, in 1941 it officially entered the political arena, announcing its candidates to parliamentary elections. Being unsatisfied with the existed regime, the organization started sponsoring strikes which spread over the Islamic countries. It actively supported demonstrations, meetings, and boycotts. Propagandizing the importance of Islamic society, making a call for the withdrawal of British troops from the lands of Egypt, multiple social reforms, and the necessity to struggle against Western colonizers, the leaders of Muslim Brotherhood were imprisoned (Munson 489). Nevertheless, the organization managed to widely impact the Islamic countries and induced people to revolt.
At the same time, India and Pakistan strived to contribute to the cultural heritage of people and propaganda of education. For example, a famous Islamic philosopher, writer, and journalist Abul Ala Mawdudi, who founded Jamaat-e-Islami organization, believed that education, culture, and religion were the core constituents of the Islamic world (Nasr 223). Unlike Muslim Brotherhood that struggled for decolonization with the help of boycotts, demonstrations, and ultimately revolution, Mawdudi was focused on the origin of Islam itself and the roles that West and Sufism played in the Islamic political life.
Evidently, although Egypt, Pakistan, and India negatively reacted to colonizers, Egypt preferred radical approach towards problem-solving, advocating for dynamic actions and revolution. India and Pakistan, on the contrary, were focused on the philosophical explanation of the problem.
- Munson, Ziad. “Islamic Mobilization: Social Movement Theory and the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood.” Wiley and Midwest Sociological Society 42. 4 (2001): 487-510. PDF file.
- Nasr, Seyyed Vali Reza. “Mawdudi and the Making of Islamic Revivalism.” Middle East Studies Association of North America 30. 2 (1996): 223-224. PDF file.