With the onset of technology, various manufacturers ranging from mechanical to electrical are looking for ways to develop a myriad of connectivity on products to enhance multifunctioning. Smart cars, also known as connected cars are among the products that have been fitted with elaborate systems that encompass hardware, software and sensors among other connectivity to bring in new functionality. Typically, the cars are designed in three most important aspects: -the physical aspect, the “smart” aspect and the connectivity aspect. The physical component embraces engines, batteries and vehicle tires. The smart aspect consists of sensors, microprocessors, and software.

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On the other hand, the connectivity aspect comprises of ports together with the antennae. Moreover, connectivity also involves protocols that are vital in enabling both the wire and wireless connectivity with the new product. There are three types of connectivity. The first category is one-to-one connectivity whereby a vehicle is linked up with a diagnostic machine. The second category is one-to-many in which many cars are connected to a sole manufacturer. The last type is many-to-many whereby different cars link with various manufacturers of the product (IEEE, 2015).

Technology involved in connected cars
One of the techniques used to manufacture smart cars is telematics. Through the technology, applications, and services that integrate wireless communication to the vehicle can be deployed. Moreover, it is through telematics that a vehicle will be able to enable its user or owner installs various services that he requires. Navigation and traffic information system are one of the applications that use telematics. It allows the driver to locate his destination while providing traffic information for a different route that a driver would desire to choose. The voice recognition and wireless internet connection are another car application that embraces telematics. It enables both the driver and passengers to send voice-activated emails while the vehicle is on the way (IEEE, 2015).

The safety system service also uses telematics to enable a driver to drive safely by detecting objects on the vehicle surrounding. The security system service is provided by GM OnStar-equipped vehicles. The security system is another service that is provided by OnStar-equipped vehicles. It employs telematics to track stolen vehicles. The last service that utilizes telematics is the diagnostic and maintenance services that monitor the driver and the maintenance system (IEEE, 2011).

Future trends in connected cars
Over the last few years, innovators have made a myriad of changes to promote multifunctioning in the vehicle industry. The revolution in the sector is set to continue to an even higher level. For instance, automakers are looking for new technology that will make a car be even more connected digitally than it is currently. However, more emphasis is on driver assistance machines and safety systems. Such feature will be crucial in determining not only how drivers handle vehicles, but also how they will be sold and purchased (Telemaatic Wire, 2004).

The invention of autonomous vehicles in the future looks confident. A company like Google is working an innovation that will create autonomous cars. Through such an innovation, the connectivity of cars with the environment will change entirely. The in-car infotainment system is another future trend. Microsoft and Apple corporations are working on in-car infotainment system to enhance entertainment and information in cars. Much effort has also been directed to self-learning system that will embrace artificial intelligent to personalize driving experiences of drivers. For instance, The Jaguar Land Rover introduced the system that is capable of recognizing a driver and his or her preferences and driving manners. Also, companies like Toyota have introduced G-book, BMW introduced connected drive; Ford embraced sync, and Volvo has used census connectivity system, all of which are human-car interactive systems. (Telemaatic Wire, 2004).

Regulatory issues
Most of the software involved in connected cars is sourced from the telecommunication industry and as such, telecom regulation is vital. Typically, the connections mainly embrace mobile phones and satellite networks. However, most of the rules do not fit connected cars since they are primarily designed for mobile connectivity. Secondly, connected cars have to maintain roads rules since they operate on roads just like other vehicles. As such, all the technical and approval requirements have to be met before they commence running on roads (Backer & McKenzie, 2015).

Privacy and data protection laws are other regulations that connected cars have to adhere to. Mainly, the collection, processing, and storage of data pertaining a vehicle’s location must satisfy the protection principle that emphasizes on data specification, minimization, and transparency. All vehicles, connected cars included, are categorized as consumer products. Therefore, they also have to meet laws and regulations about consumer protection (Backer & McKenzie, 2015).

Global Implications of connected cars
Fine-tuning and de-risking are one of the impacts of connected vehicles. With the onset of technology, consumers are likely to emphasize on value. Connected cars have a supply chain that is similar to an inverted pyramid in that very few producers make up the base that provides upstream. The majority of the risks that are associated with such a system are likely to go unnoticed until dome part of the system goes wrong. In the mid and long run, the immense desire for customization will drive simplification. Moreover, the distribution of finished vehicles majorly acts as a catalyst. A connected cat is not only affordable but also effective since it does away with other components like scanners or even the involvement of people in the entry of data. Regarding repair and maintenance, better pre-diagnosis have been crucial in the overall repair and maintenance of vehicles (IEEE, 2011).

    References
  • Backer & McKenzie (2015). Data Privacy & Security: Connected Cars-Major Regulatory Issues Around Connected Cars. Retrieved from: http://www.bakeriform.com/home/2015/11/9/connected-cars-major-regulatory-issues-around-connected -cars
  • IEEE(2011).The Working Group Setting the Standards for Wireless LANs. Retrieved from: http://www.ieee802.org/11
  • IEEE(2015).WorkingGroupforWirelessPersonalAreaNetworks(WPANs).Retrieved from: http://www.ieee802.org/15//
  • Telemaatic Wire (2004). Trends and Innovations Shaping “Connected Cars.” Retrieved from: http://telematicswire.net/trends-and-innovations-shaping-connected-cars/