State Sponsored TerrorismState Sponsored Terrorism is a type of terroristic organization which gains support from the government (or governments) and aims at discouraging political opposition (Week 3, n. d., p. 6). One of the shiniest examples of state-sponsored terrorist groups is Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) created in 1974. ANO was sponsored by Iraq, Syria, and Libya.
The initial goal of ANO was a total destruction of Israel. ANO`s leader Abu Nidal considered it the only way to wage the war of national liberation. He also believed that this struggle would unite the Arab world. However, ANO`s ideology was changing quickly to suit the needs of its sponsors and ensure sponsorship on the part of these countries.
Since 1974, ANO had organized over 120 terrorist attacks across 20 countries and killed over 1,000 people. Lockerbie 103 Bombing was one of major ANO`s attacks along with attacks in Vienna and Rome airports (Worman, 2013). Others attacks also included Pan Am jet at Rome in 1973 (32 passengers were killed), the explosion on the board of TWA airliner (88 people died), the assassination of Kamel Hussein in 1982, Kuwait bombings in 1985 (89 people were wounded and 8 people were killed), and the attack of Greek cruise ship the city of Poros (9 were killed; 98 – wounded) (The Mackenzie Institute, 2015). There many other attacks organized by ANO across the world.
Dissident Terrorism is a kind of terrorist attacks committed by non-state groups against religious and ethnonational groups, or other enemies (Week 3, n. d., p. 10). One of the examples of the dissident terrorist group is HAMAS, created in July 1987 and led by Ahmed Yassin in the Gaza Strip.
It is a political Islamic movement and political party aimed at the destruction of Jews. They deny the existence of Israel and struggle against Jews for the liberation of Palestine which is claimed their main strategic goal. According to HAMAS ideology, any Zionist is their enemy.
Since the creation and up to 2005, HAMAS organized 780 terrorist attacks, killing 430 people and wounding 2260. All the actions sought to assassinate Jewish people. In the 1980s, Israeli soldiers were kidnapped and killed. In 1990, suicide bombing was organized in Tel Aviv. The same year, one person was killed during the bus hijacking in Tel Aviv. Then, in Jaffa, three Israeli workers were killed.
In 1991, Hamas activists directed the truck towards the group of Israeli soldiers standing at the roadside. In 1992, they assassinated Israeli family. Suicide murderer directed the car full of explosive into the bus. 8 people were killed. Some years later, a suicide bombing killed 5 people at the bus station (Emerson, 1996). Although HAMAS was not involved in massive murdering, their attacks claimed lives of many people, mainly Israelis.
International terrorism is associated with terrorist acts which are directed by a foreign group of people that transcend boundaries of other states. Terrorists practice their attacks in non-native countries (Week 3, n. d., p. 14). The example of an international terrorist group is Lashkar-e Tayyiba established in 1990. It is considered one of the most dangerous terrorist groups and takes the second place after Al Qaeda. Lashkar-e Tayyiba belongs to international terrorism as it performs in a foreign non-native country.
LeT sought to undermine Indian rule in Jammu and Kashmir, thus making a step towards India`s collapse. The members of LeT strived for the establishment of Muslim rule over the state and beyond it.
In 1998, one of the LeT`s members killed 24 Hindus together with their families. In 2000, 36 Sikhs were killed by LeT terrorists. In 2002, 31 bus passengers were shot on the way to Pakistan. In sum, LeT almost 1000 were killed in the result of its attacks. The bloodiest attack was committed by LeT in Mumbai in 2008. It targeted mainly Americans and Israelis. If before 2008, LeT used to target mainly Indians, now it becomes involved in the fight against NATO (American Foreign Policy Council, n. d.). In recent years, it is changing its course, creating a serious threat to the world.
Religious terrorism is a kind of terrorist actions which have a religious character. This type of terrorism is especially dangerous due to the enormous fanaticism of its members (Week 3, n. d., p. 17). An example of a religious terrorist group is Boko Haram, established in 2002 in Nigeria and led by Abubakar Shekau.
Boko Harem claims that Nigerian politics has been seized by false Muslims. So, their mission is to fight against them and establish a pure Islamic stated which is ruled by sharia law. This organization represents religious terrorism since terrorists` goal is to defense the purity of Islam and destroy what they consider an inappropriate religious view.
Since 2011, this organization has planted bombs in Nigeria`s churches or in public. In 2011, 10 soldiers died after Boko Harem terrorist attack. In 2012, Bako Harem members killed over 40 civilians. In Abuja, suicide murderer in the bomb car rams the entryway in the United Nations Headquarters, killing at least 18 people.
After the broadening of their targets, local schools are targeted regularly. In 2012, 12 Maiduguri public schools were burned down at night. As a result, 10, 000 children were forced out of their education (Walker, 2012). Evidently, Boko Harem has become and now remains a powerful terrorist organization. Its actions are rooted deeply in Islamic views.
- American Foreign Policy Council. (n. d.). Lashkar-eTaiba. American Foreign Policy Council.
- Emerson, S. (1996). Hamas, the PLO, and terrorist attacks against Israel. United States House of Representatives.
- The Mackenzie Institute. (2015). Abu Nidal Organization (ANO). The Mackenzie Institute. Retrieved from http://mackenzieinstitute.com/abu-nidal-organization-ano-k-fatah-revolutionary-council-arab-revolutionary-brigades-revolutionary-organization-socialist-muslims-2/
- Walker, A. (2012). What is Boko Haram? United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved from http://www.usip.org/sites/default/files/SR308.pdf
- Week 3. (n. d.). Types of Terrorism. Week 3.
- Worman, J. G. (2013). Abu Nidal: Chameleon of change, A.K.A. terrorism’s free agent. Global Security Studies, 4 (1): 57-69.