The genetic structure of individuals often affects their response to treatment interventions due to differences in how the body reacts to chemicals that are introduced. In determining the most effective pharmacotherapeutic strategy to apply to a patient, there is a need to understand the outcome of the intervention (Arcangelo & Peterson, 2016). The objective of pharmacotherapy is to address health concerns and increase the overall health outcome of the patient. As such, factors that affect the effectiveness of the identified strategy should be considered prior to the implementation of the strategy.

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Practitioners require an understanding of the possibility of ethnic interference with the possible and normative outcomes of pharmacotherapeutic strategies. In seeking such an understanding, a case analysis suffices which helps in the development of possible outcomes, outside the expected outcomes of the strategy implementation. Based on the analysis of the case presented, it is observable that due to the relationship between ethnicity and genetics, ethnicity of the patient is a significant factor to consider during the development of the pharmacotherapeutic interventions.

As the name offers, pharmacokinetics is a term used to identify the process through which drugs move from intake to dismissal from the body. According to Arcangelo and Peterson (2016), the term refers to the movement of the drug from the administration, absorption, distribution, and elimination (13). On the other hand, pharmacodynamics deals with the effects that the drugs will have on the body of the patient. The term as defined by Arcangelo and Peterson (2006) is how the drugs would initiate a response from the body in terms of therapy and toxicity at a cellular level (13). Based on the definitions, it is evident that how the drugs are received by and also how they interact with the body cells would determine the outcome of the treatment. Drugs are administered based on predetermined and predictable outcomes, and as such, it serves to determine any factor that would affect how the body receives and processes the drugs as described in the succeeding case.

The African American ethnic group is observed to be more prone to hypertension, and the group also presents genetic factors that reduce the effectiveness of the drug processes (Bangaloreet al., 2015). The case selected for this study is that of hypersensitive intervention and the differences that occur as a result of ethnic differences. In the case study, a 72-year-old African American male patient with hypertension, heart failure, and alcohol use in his medical history presented to the emergency room after taking Lisinopril belonging to a friend as a first response to a traumatic left lower leg swelling. After 24 hours, the patient developed angioedema which manifested through the swelling of the lower lip (Wisecarver et al., 2017). Angioedema, while uncommon, has potential mortality, and hence its development is often intervened by stopping the use of the harmful drug. In the case study, it was observable that, upon stopping the administration of lisinopril, the swelling of the lower lip subsided within 24 hours. The case observed an incidence of angioedema that was four times higher than in Euro-American, Hispanic, and Asian ethnic groups (Wisecarver et al., 2017).

Angiotensin-converting enzymes class of drugs is a common prescription of drugs owing to their effectiveness. However, the African American ethnic group is observed as non-responsive to the class of drugs. In the case, the patient, a hypersensitive African American, was observed to have a reduced response to the drug as compared to other drugs as well as users of other ethnic categories, that is Hispanics, Euro-Americans, and Asians (Ulasi, C. Ijoma, Anisiuba, Ifebunandu,& U. Ijoma, 2015). For instance, the class was less effective than the calcium channel blockers and was less effective than when used with a population outside the African American ethnic group. As such, the outcome of the intervention was less effective and outside the predictable outcomes. The main factor that influenced the process is the ethnic difference of the patient. The general population to which the patient belongs is the African American ethnic group which is often adversely affected by the angiotensin-converting enzymes class of inhibitors. Therefore, it is evident that the genetic composition of the African American population results in undesirable outcomes following the administration of angiotensin-converting enzymes class of inhibitors.

It is evident that the most significant factor of the adverse effects of the drugs is the ethnic differences of the population. In order to achieve effective intervention, consideration and emphasis must be placed on the ethnic origin of the individual. However, from the case study, it is observable that the class of drugs does not negatively affect all African Americans universally. As such, the plan should include a review of the previously tried drug classes. This would eliminate the likelihood of the use of drugs that have negative effects on the patient. Thereafter, the second process would be to determine the specific reactions of the patient to other drug classes, which should be based on the evidence-based effectiveness of the drugs.

The process would allow to match the drug with the specific needs of the patient and also to reduce the likelihood of undesirable outcome following from the administration. Another step in the process would be to educate the patients about the differences between the drugs and their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. This would allow the patient to remain informed and aware of the drugs that they are being prescribed. This would reduce an incidence of erroneous prescriptions when the patient is referred to another practitioner.