Plant succession is a process that can take place unnoticed in a particular locality because of a continuous colonization, establishment, and extinction of species of plant populations. Plant succession is normally characterized by a collection of species that control a given geographical location, but gradually that area is partially or completely made devoid of vegetation or occupied by another species as a result of disturbance (Garnier et al., 2004). Nearly all species of plant in water habitat participate in successional interactions because the plant’s life cycle characteristics are depicted in physiological ecology.
Hydrosere Aquatic Succession
Different types of plants and animals living in different water habitats such as ponds, edge to the open water such as meadow, submerged vegetation, the margin of the water, and dry area. The animals found at the edge of the ponds include swan, heron, snapping turtle, frog, otter, and salamander. A drop of pond water may contain myriad of organizations such as bacteria, algae, protozoa, worms, and Hydra (Garnier et al., 2004). Most of these microorganisms are microscopic though a few of them are large to be seen. In the submerged vegetation category include certain types of grasses and naiads.

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There are also many tiny arthropods found at the edge of pod such as copepods, which are three millimeters in length and are visible to the naked eye. Algae are plant-like protists while protozoans are an animal like. There is also a group of creature called tardigrades, which inhabit the edge of the pond. Tardigrades are one millimeter in length and are also known as ‘water bears’ as they depict the resemblance to large mammals (Garnier et al., 2004). There are also plants and animals living in open water such as fish, shellyfish, and migratory birds. Others include oyster, mud crabs, and small fish. The plants include lesser spearwort, water lobelia, water lily, bogbean, and quillwort.

Influences of slopes
There is observational vegetation difference between the NW slopes and SE slope. The SE slopes are almost similar regarding floristic composition with an evergreen species of plant that are greater than NW slopes. There is the high cover of summer-deciduous species in the SE than the NW slopes. There is also a good number of hygrophilous species dominating the SE slope, which are interpreted as a relic of rain forest expansion that is found in the south. The vegetation of the NW facing slopes similar to the Chilean vegetation. There are xeromorphic species in the NW slope, which may have invaded the region from the North. There is an intensive wood-cutting as well as cattle grazing on the evergreen species, which is believed to have contributed to the high cover of xeromorphic plants.

The species composition of divided semi-natural grassland in NW slopes may be due to local extinction and colonization activities that have led successional change. The response to succession in NW slope is due to changing management conditions. The resistance of vegetation in these areas is caused by the effects of topography on microclimate as well as on the soil. The significant increase of fertility in SE slopes is greatly correlated with the analysis of the soil found the region. The degree of change of fertility, as well as moisture values, is identified to reduce the angle of the slope.

Primary or secondary succession
Primary as well as secondary succession as the types of ecological succession of plants and animals is the gradual process of how the ecosystems changes and develop over a given time frame. This implies that nothing remains the same in the ecosystem. For primary succession, organisms occupy a habitat that was never colonized before such as sand dunes or rock faces. Secondary succession normally takes place on a previously colonized habitat. The organisms normally associated with these two types of succession include lichens and moss as pioneer species (Garnier et al., 2004). There are also grasses, and shrubs take over then later bigger plants such as cottonwood and finally coniferous trees.

    References
  • Garnier, E., Cortez, J., Billès, G., Navas, M. L., Roumet, C., Debussche, M., … & Neill, C. (2004). Plant functional markers capture ecosystem properties during secondary succession. Ecology, 85(9), 2630-2637.