What drug is Gretchen on?
Gretchen is on illegally obtained prescription opioid pain killers.
Choose’at least 4’of the following questions to discuss:

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1. What drug has the individual in this case been using? What led you to believe this?
Gretchen is on illegally obtained prescription opioid pain killers, such as Meperidine, morphine, hydrocodone or Oxycodone. This is evident because she was taking pain killers for chronic pain, up until as recently as three months ago. Addiction to these drugs can happen just as a result of following a doctor-proscribed regime, and she may not have been able to stop when the prescriptions did. She has the symptoms of apathy, drowsiness, even unconsciousness, reduced social interaction, and slowed movement and reactions. She is also using money necessary for living expenses to buy the drugs. ‘

3. What receptors, transporters, or neurotransmitters could be involved? How does the drug affect these receptors, transporters, or neurotransmitters?
Pain killers bind to opiate receptors. This blocks the brain’s perception of pain. They also have an impact on the way the central nervous system sends pain signals to the brain. The blocking of the opiate receptors is also what causes a person using pain killers to feel ‘high’.

4. Provide at least one relevant website concerning the drug in question.
http://patient.info/health/strong-painkillers-opioids
https://painkilleraddictioninformationnetwork.com/

5. Is this drug addictive? What are the consequences of continued use of this drug?
These drugs are addictive. Long-term use of opioid pain killers produce increased tolerance, immunosuppression, and hormonal issues.
What have Jason and Max been smoking?
Jason and Max have been smoking marijuana.
‘Choose at’least 4’of the following questions to answer:

1. What drug has the individual in this case been using? What led you to believe this?’
Jason and Max have been smoking Marijuana. The facts that lead to this conclusion are the distinctive smell, their bloodshot eyes, the need for snacking, the short-term memory loss or lack of concentration, and the relaxed, euphoric state.

3. What receptors, transporters, or neurotransmitters could be involved? How does the drug affect these receptors, transporters, or neurotransmitters?
THC or the active ingredient in marijuana acts on several centers of the brain that scientists have called the endocannabinoid system, after the drug. THC attaches to cannabinoid receptors and activate reactions that can have an adverse effect on the body.

4. Provide at least one relevant website concerning the drug in question.
http://www.drugs.com/illicit/marijuana.html
https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/marijuana
https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/marijuana/marijuana-addictive

5. Is this drug addictive? What are the consequences of continued use of this drug?
This drug can be addictive with long-term use. Also, Marijuana is commonly considered to be a gateway drug ‘ that is one whose use can lead to use of more dangerous drugs.

Please’choose at least 4’of the following questions to discuss:
1. What is Rasmussen Syndrome (what are its history, symptoms, prognosis, etc.)?
Rasmussen syndrome is an epileptic syndrome that affects children. It starts with gradual minor seizures and worsens over time until serious complications occur involving at least one side of the brain. It does not respond well to medication, and it is believed that removing the affects areas of the brain can help stop the seizures and halt the progression of the syndrome.

2. Other than reducing his seizures, how else might Jerrod’s thinking or behavior be affected by losing these parts of his brain?
Fine motor skills on the right side of his body might be affected, as well as some of his language ability. He may have a limp. The use of his hand on his right side might be affected.

4. What types of abilities would he still retain, because the brain structures would remain intact?
‘He would retain spatial awareness, face recognition, visual acuity and musical ability.

8. What decision do you recommend to the family? Why or why not go ahead with surgery?
I would recommend going on with the surgery. Brain surgery is scary, but it is more likely to help him in the long-run than any other type of therapy. He may be affected by what is taken from his brain, but at least the condition would not worsen. If the surgery is not done, his condition would gradually worsen over time.

Speak Up: ‘Bob’s Case
1. What condition or conditions (there may be more than one possibility) are being described in this case? Let us know why you think this is the case, and provide one website that might justify your position.
Bob may be suffering from Wernicke’s Aphasia. He is still able to produce language, but the language is made up of neologisms and sentences that do not make sense in the context of what he is saying. He also cannot repeat sentences given to him. The aphasia exists both in writing and verbally.

Wernicke’s (Receptive) Aphasia

2. What brain area or area(s) may be involved (be sure to consider which language functions are compromised too, and be specific as to which hemisphere)? How should they function normally?
The left posterior temporal lobe close to the parietal lobe is the Wernicke’s area. This is the area affected by Wernicke’s aphasia. Because this area is primarily responsible for auditory definition of words, when an aphasia occurs, word choice is effected while grammatical structures remain intact.

3. What could be causing this dysfunction?
Damage to the Wernicke’s area of the brain, from a stroke, could be causing the aphasia. This conclusion could be reached because at the onset of the aphasia, he had a period of weakness on the right hand side of his body.

4. What do the patient’s symptoms tell you about his/her language abilities and how they may be impaired?
‘Bob’s ability to speak in grammatically correct sentences is not impaired. He answers questions with answers, ETC. His ability to choose the proper words for those sentences, however, has been damaged. The fact that this damage exists in both reading and writing is important for a diagnosis.

Answer question 10 (required),’and your choice of at least 3 additional questions.
4. What are the basic processes of IVF and PGD?IVF is the process of taking eggs from a woman sperm from a man, and fertilizing them artificially. PGD is the process of taking a cell from the resulting embryo and testing for genetic abnormalities, ETC.

6. How could a sibling’s blood help cure Sally?
A sibling’s cord blood may produce stem cells which can produce bone marrow, which can help cure Sally.

8. What is so unusual about the PGD proposed by the Shannon’s?
The PGD procedure is different for the Shannon’s because not only is it being used to detect the disease that Sally has, but also it is being used to produce a child with a specific blood type. It is being used to create an embryo with a specific set of traits for a particular purpose.

10. What do you think the research team should do? What should the Shannon’s do?
The research team should go through with the procedure, since, as is pointed out, it can lead the way to further advancements in being able to detect and cure diseases. The Shannon’s could consider donating the healthy embryos that are not a match for Sally to couples who may be looking for embryo donation, or consider using them in a future procedure to have siblings for Sally and this future child.