The aim of this paper is to write about researching an aspect of Roman civilization between the time period of 753BC – 287BC. I have chosen: The Regal Period, which ran from 753 to 509 BC. With regard to to historical evidence on early Roman civilization, I first consulted Encyclopedia Britannica. This is probably the most renowned encyclopedia in the world, and is an excellent source for research. It states that: The regal period is one of Roman history’s most badly documented periods due to the fact that historical reports about Rome, were not written about at that time. 1
I did the following research at the Lifesmith educational website. It met my objectives in terms of being a credible site, as is approximately 20 years old, and is often used by teachers: While it can be said that the events, dates, and names referred to in the Regal Period may be in the realms of myth and fiction as opposed to factual history; there is nevertheless, concrete evidence of various aspects of this period during this era. This includes: Etruria’s conquest of Rome, the growth of Rome, various Kings being in charge during early Roman rule, as well as their abolition; Rome’s difficulties with its neighbors, the Etruscan princes’ dynasty being established, the Tarquins’ rule, and details of how this foreign control was ousted.2
In addition to the aforementioned points, the prevalence of particular conditions within the political and social sphere may be historically acceptable as well. These include: the start of the separation of non-slave inhabitants into two different divisions: the plebs or clients, along with their dependents, all of whom had no political existence from the first place; the patricians, special citizens within the populous who had sole political rights; the king (or rex), who was given the title by the Senatus (Senate), or the Elders’ Council. The latter were from the patricians ranks. These patricians enjoyed a lifetime in office. They were responsible for the war populus, and personally led the army. “They were lifetime in office. They were responsible for the war populus, and personally led the army. “They were preceded by officers, known as lictors, who… were the supreme judges in all civil and criminal suits.”2 Advice was only offered by the Senate at the times that the king consulted it, yet, the patres (elders) had a very strong moral authority, as their position was for life.
Initially, the patricians had sole responsibility for bearing arms for the purpose of defending Rome, however, an important military reform took place somewhere along the line during the Regal Period, and what is commonly referred to as the constitution’s Servian reform (as it is attributed to ascribed to Servius Tullius), went into force.2
By this time, the plebs were able to become wealthy, and own property. A ruling was then passed that all citizens who owned property, whether they were plebeian or patrician, had to join Rome’s army. The ranks that were given were inline with the citizen’s personal wealth. While this set up was military at the start, during the early centuries of the Republic, it initiated the huge political battle between the plebs and the patricians.2
I attained the following research from The Great Soviet Enclyclopedia, a highly revered publication which is used by many universities. It is a high grade source of information, and like Encyclopedia Britannica, can be used to support a historical debate: According to legend, there are a total of seven kings who successively governed Rome between the 8th and 6th centuries BC ” Romulus, Numa, Pompilius, Tullus, Hostilius, Ancus, Martius, Tarquinius, Priscus, Servius, Tullius, and Tarquinius Superbus” It is thought that the latter three were from an Etruscan dynasty.
This could possibly mean that there was Etruscan domination for a brief period of time. The populus Romanus (Roman citizens), were regarded as completely enfranchised, and as such, so legend has it, were split up into different tribes and clans. In the beginning, it was just the patricians who were awarded full rights. Those who were not part of a clan organization were referred to as plebeians. The patricians suffered inequality in regard to the value of the property they owned; and there was an imbalance of wealth and other aspects between patricians and plebeians. These factors resulted in the formation of “clientship,” a type of social relations.