The rotavirus infection is commonly associated with medical condition known as gastroenteritis. Most of the children in America are victims of rotavirus infection before they get to five years. Most of the infections for the medical condition are experienced in the spring and winter. The spread of the disease among the children is very easy (SA Health, 2014). The disease can also be easily spread to the adults from the children. Once the virus infects a child, the child is likely to become sick in approximately two days. In the first 3 to 8 days, the victims are likely to experience massive diarrhea and vomiting.
Once the rotavirus is taken into the body of the victim, they infect the epithelium of the small intestines. These infections interfere with the normal operations of the intestines. The mature enterocytes of the rotaviruses attach theme selves at the villi tips. These enterocytes lead to the formation of lesions that lead to massive changes in the intestines. Just like other pathogens, this the process that leads to the inflammation in the intestines (Mayo Clinic, 2014). Massive inflammations in the intestines lead to diarrhea.
The prevalence of the medical condition is very in the United States. According to The National Foundation of Infectious Diseases (NFID) report, there are numerous infants and children who are infected annually. The report indicates that in each year, there are approximately 410,000 visits to the offices of the doctors and 250,000 visits to the emergency rooms NFID, (2014). The report also outlines that there are approximately 70,000 annual hospitalizations. The number of deaths associated with the medical condition is roughly 20 to 60 victims. These figures are taken for the infants and the infected children who are below five years of age NFID, (2014).
The infection is mainly spread through contact with infected surfaces or individuals (Mayo Clinic, 2014). Water or food that has been contaminated can also enhance the spread of the condition from one individual to another. The most common route of passage to the body for the virus is through the mouth. Some of the common places where the infections occur includes in the family homes, the elderly homes and day care centers (SA Health, 2014). The mucous membranes of the body can also facilitate the passage of the virus into the body. The parts with the mucus membranes that can facilitate the entry of the virus include the nose, throat, genitals and mouth. Airborne droplets that have been infected can facilitate the entry of this virus into the body.
Some of the manifestations of the illness include massive dehydration of the victims that is likely to lead to hospitalization. The most common symptoms of the condition are watery diarrhea, fever and vomiting. Cool, dry skin and mouth can also be some of the symptoms. The infection can also cause deep and sunken eyes. The victims are also likely to experience lethargy and abdominal pains. Adults and older children can also experience symptomatic infections. The infection can attack children and the predisposed populations severally in their lives (Stoppler, 2014). The adults and children who have impaired immunity have a higher risk of experiencing severe attacks of the medical condition. The epidemics of the condition are also very common in some regions.
The Rotavirus disease is commonly described as a self-limited infection because of its extension of symptom manifestation. The death that is as a result of the dehydration by the disease is very rare. In order prevent the progression of the condition to other complications, proper recognition of the medical condition through expert attention is very crucial. Prompt rehydration is one of the strategies that can manage the condition.
Diarrhea is one of the symptoms that is likely to lead to the performance of various tests to ascertain the presence of the disease. Physical diagnosis is the most common to by the use of the stool samples in the lab. The stool specimens are used in the diagnosis process in order to detect the rotavirus. Further tests can be conducted to confirm the presence of the virus by using polymerase chain reaction of using the enzyme immunoassay (Stoppler, 2014). However, these tests are not necessary in most cases.
There is no specific treatment that can assist in managing the condition. The condition usually degenerates between three and eight days. However, there are numerous alternative strategies that can be used in managing the symptoms of the infection. These strategies assist in preventing dehydration in the patients. The patients are encouraged to drink a lot of fluids. Oral rehydration fluids can also be administered to children who diarrhea (Mayo Clinic, 2014). The rehydration can also assist the children to acquire the minerals that are lost from the body. Intravenous fluids may be required from the hospitals to facilitate the rehydration process.
Community health wellness and promotion strategies can so be used in the management of the medical condition. Creating awareness and promoting the importance of hygiene is one of the strategies that can be used in managing the condition. This can assist in reducing the transmissions that occur through contact with the infected surfaces (Stoppler, 2014). The communities can also assist in mobilizing people to take their children for the vaccinations of the disease. Promoting the vaccination of the children assist in reducing the infections and transmission rates. Health literacy is also very essential in assisting the people in prompt identification and management of the symptoms.
- Mayo Clinic, (2014). Rotavirus. Mayo Clinic Publication. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.org/
- NFID, (2014). Rotavirus. National Foundation for Infectious Diseases. Retrieved from http://www.nfid.org/
- SA Health, (2014). Rotavirus Infection-Symptoms Treatment and Prevention. Government of South Australia. Retrieved from http://www.sahealth.sa.gov.au/
- Stoppler, C.M. & (2014). Rotavirus. Medicine Net. Retrieved from http://www.medicinenet.com/