Question 1Selection tests are important instruments that are usually used by employers to make employment decisions. Job knowledge tests, interview tests and cognitive ability tests are obvious examples of such selection tests (Wilk & Cappelli, 2003). Thus to begin with, job knowledge tests are advantageous in the sense that they provide the employers with a wide range of inference on the general overview of a job performance score. It also minimizes the chances of test takers providing fake responses. Finally, they are less likely to provide varied results basing on the gender or social differences of the underlying test takers. Nonetheless, job knowledge tests are inappropriate in situations where there are short training programs for particular job specifications. They also require frequent update to create flexibility based on the underlying job specification. In addition to that, job knowledge tests can be primarily costly and consequently time consuming to develop (Wilk & Cappelli, 2003).

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Job interview tests on the other hand are advantageous because they expected and consequently accepted by a wide range of job applicants (Wilk & Cappelli, 2003). They also provide a remarkable platform for a two way communication between the employers and the job applicants. In retrospect to that, interview tests are also important because they provide employers with basis for making judgment regarding the communication skills of the potential employees. Finally, they have been designed to offer valid inferences for specific job descriptions and are not likely to be affected by gender differences in terms of expected responses. Nonetheless, job interview tests are disadvantageous because they are likely to be affected by rating errors. In addition to that, they are costly and can even compel the test takers to make responses that are likely to trigger positive decisions. They are also time consuming and less useful in situations where there large numbers of selection candidates (Wilk & Cappelli, 2003).

Cognitive ability tests are on the other hand advantageous because they can be used as tools for predicting job performances of complex job descriptions. The test cannot be easily influenced by the test taker trying to attract positive response. In addition to that, the tests are easy to design and administer are likely to produce valid inferences. They also reduce business costs by offering the employers with hiring and promotion rationales. Nonetheless, the tests are disadvantageous because they provide the employers with different answers basing on gender difference. Besides, they are also time-consuming to design and structure. Therefore, basing on the above test discussions, I find cognitive ability tests as the best test of the three (Wilk & Cappelli, 2003).

Psychological tests are useful in predicting the ability of individuals in a variety of areas because it measures how different people are able to perform socially and economically. The test can be effective in identifying people who are poor in law enforcement because they provide an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of people. Nonetheless, psychological assessments are substantially based on intelligence test and are not likely to predict success. Therefore, they are not entirely suitable for assessing officer candidature over time (Wilk & Cappelli, 2003).

    References
  • Wilk, S. L., & Cappelli, P. (2003). Understanding the determinants of employer use of selection methods. Personnel Psychology, 56(1), 103-124.

Question 2
The first phase of field training program is introduction (Sun, 2002). The phase is advantageous because it provides the recruits with a platform for understanding agency policies as well as the local laws that guide their operational abilities. Nonetheless, introduction phase in disadvantageous because it does not provide the entire overview of the underlying training program. The second phase is training and evaluation. The phase is beneficial because it introduces the learners to the complex duties that are faced by patrol officers. However, the phase is advantageous because it is not convincing enough to declare an individual as an officer. The final phase is widely referred to as the final portion. The phase is advantageous because it provides the learners with opportunities to perform all the functions of patrol officers alongside acting as observers and evaluators. Nonetheless, the phase does not predict whether an individual would become competent in his/her line of duty or not. Consequently, the three training phases are equally important in nurturing the recruits into their different duties. However, the final portion is more detailed oriented and preferable of the three because it provides conclusive training directives for the recruits (Sun, 2002).

    References
  • Sun, I. Y. (2002). Police officer attitudes toward peers, supervisors, and citizens: A comparison between field training officers and regular officers.American Journal of Criminal Justice, 27(1), 69-83.