What do you think about hormone use in meat animals? Do you agree with the statistics mentioned in the PowerPoint presentation? Do you agree or disagree with hormone use in animals?

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I think that hormone use in meat animals is acceptable so long as it continues to meet standards and does not cause a negative effect on one’s health. The risks associated with hormone use must be considered, and standards must stay up-to-date with newly found research. I agree with the statistics mentioned in the PowerPoint about beef containing low estrogen as most foods rich in estrogen are plant-based such as beans and sprouts.

I agree with the use of hormones in animals because it offers numerous benefits. Hormones allow for the industry to keep up with the growing demand of food by increasing the weight of animals. With increased weight gain, we are able to offer a larger quantity of quality meat at a reduced cost. The one thing that concerns me is the lack of research on the long-term effects of hormone use in animals

What are some visual signs of an unhealthy animal?
Visuals signs of an unhealthy animal include loss of weight and droopiness. Productions may be visibly low and lesions may begin to develop on the affected animal. Changes in color may be detected, as well as excessive nasal discharge and heavy breathing.

What diseases should you vaccinate for in your area for beef, sheep/goats, and equine?
In Arkansas, I should vaccinate for:
BVD, Brucellosis, Pseudorabies, Epididymitis, Equine Infectious Anemia, Glanders, Salmonellosis, Contagious Agalactia, Contagious Agalactia, Theileriosis, Dermatophilosis, Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, Hemorrhagic Septicemia, Bovine Anaplasmosis, Nairobi Sheep Disease

Have you witnessed a livestock disease? If yes, then describe the experience and treatment? If no, then choose a disease not listed in the presentation. Give a brief description of the disease and research the appropriate treatment protocol.
I have not actually witnessed a livestock disease, but one disease that affects livestock is Clostridial Disease, or “Blackleg”. It is a fatal disease caused by Clostridium chauvoei that affect both cattle and sheep. Animals that contract the disease are more commonly of the beef breeds and in great health (Stampfli, n.d.). Blackleg is most prominent during the summer and fall months, and is rarely detected during the winter. Symptoms of the disease include emphysematous swelling and lesions may develop without any prior history (Stampfli, n.d.). Affected muscles have been found to be of a dark red to black color with a spongy texture and sweet odor (Stampfli, n.d.). In some cases, bruising or exercise may cause diseases.

C chauvoei is found in the intestines and are believed to be ingested then passed through the wall of the GI tract. After getting into the bloodstream, organisms are absorbed into the muscle and other tissues like the spleen, but may remain dormant (Stampfli, n.d.). Treatment includes a multivalent vaccine containing C chauvoei, C septicum and, where needed, C novyi antigens is safe and reliable for cattle and sheep. Calves ranging from 3–6 mo of age are to be vaccinated twice followed by yearly boosters before the spring and summer months.

What are the benefits of having a biosecurity plan for your livestock enterprise?
There are many benefits associated with have a biosecurity plan for a livestock enterprise. The onset of diseases can take a huge toll of profit and quality so preventing diseases from being introduced to herds is important. Diseases can be transmitted from carcasses, machinery, pests, and carriers of the disease. A biosecurity plan helps to prevent and reduce the passing of diseases from bacteria and viruses through a well strategized process. Dependent upon the accepted risk level of each ranch, measures are put into place to protect against economic loss.

Do you believe vaccines are effective in controlling disease? Explain your answer
I believe that vaccines are effective in controlling diseases so long as they are up-to-date and received in a timely manner as some viruses and bacteria may grow resistant to vaccines.

List and briefly describe the different types of immunity.
The different types of immunity are native defense mechanisms, passive immunity, acquired immunity, vaccinations, immunizations, and endemic. Native defense mechanisms help to fight off infectious agents even if the animal has never been immunized, and some animals may have better native defense mechanisms than others. A passive immunity is temporary and comes from other sources such as a mother’s colostrum. An acquired immunity comes from previous exposure to a disease, and is permanent or semi-permanent. Vaccinations come from animals receiving vaccines. Immunizations also come from vaccines, and endemics are diseases that are always present.

Why might vaccination failures occur?
Vaccinations may fail due to human error, incubation or stress during the time of vaccination, too much time in-between vaccines, and infections that are too great for vaccines.

How are diseases spread? List a few examples.
A few ways in which diseases are spread are contact with an infected carcass, rodents, unclean water, the introduction of animals carrying a disease, and contaminated feed bags.

Describe ways, other than vaccines, to reduce disease within your herd.
Following the proper sanitation procedures and staying up-to-date on training are great ways to reduce diseases within a herd. Maintaining an effective monitoring and evaluation system can also help to reduce the spread of diseases.

Explain how vaccines enhance the animal’s immunity.
Vaccines strengthen with the body’s current defenses against invasions by acting like an infection in order to cause the body to produce antibodies. The animal’s body thus remembers how to fight off the disease.

    References
  • LIST OF REPORTABLE DI SEASES IN ARKANSAS [PDF]. (2004, March 1). Arkansas
    Livestock and Poultry Commission.
  • Stampfli, H. R. (n.d.). Blackleg – Generalized Conditions. Retrieved March 05, 2017, from
    http://www.merckvetmanual.com/generalized-conditions/clostridial-diseases/blackleg