Nideffer, R. M. (2012). Theory of attentional and personal style vs. test of attentional and interpersonal style (TAIS). Enhanced Performance Systems, 1-34.Robert M. Nideffer, Ph.D. is a researcher and a practitioner with more than thirty-five years experience in the exploration of the concentration skills of individuals, emotional arousal, and the ability to deliver high performance in situations with higher pressure. He is a distinguished expert in the in the field of medical research. Moreover, his studies and theoretical constructs have had significantly influenced Sports Psychology. Most of his work and research have appeared in the New York Times, Fast Company, Dun’s Review, Sports Illustrated, National Observer and Psychology Today among other leading publications.

You're lucky! Use promo "samples20"
and get a custom paper on
"Sports Psychology: Annotated Bibliography"
with 20% discount!
Order Now

The article, The Attentional and Interpersonal Style (TAIS) thus illustrates the development and study of psychometric tools designed to provide relevant feedback on the high-specific performance by individuals performing at high levels of pressure. The construct for the study is significant since it infers the behavioral definition of the various forms of concentrations required in diverse performance arenas. However, besides the construct’s application in the sports psychology, it can as well be applied in business settings to identify talents, appraise performance and develop productivity. Additionally, TAIS can be applied in coaching, succession planning, and teambuilding and management development. However, it is widely applicable in sports competition because sports provide an ideal chance to perceive the significance of concentration and decision-making a requirement in very demanding and high-pressure situations.

Van Staden, A., Myburgh, C. P., & Poggenpoel, M. (2009). A psycho-educational model to enhance the self-development and mental health of classical dancers. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, 13(1), 20-28.
In this study, Dr. RM Nideffer states that when individuals face stressors, they are likely to seek for solutions to their problems, identify means of voiding these stressors or apply various coping methods to deal with the problem. According to Doug Hyun Han the most appropriate coping methods that should be applied to deal with stressors is cognitive flexibility, which refers to an individual’s capacity and ability to shift focus from a particular object to the other. This is similar to Nideffer’s three subscales that enhance effective attentional focus, and overloaded external focus and reduced attentional focus. This study thus concludes finds that stress and anxiety negatively correlate with better cognitive performance. Therefore, the study determines that cognitive flexibility enhances human performance through stress and anxiety modulation during a sport’s competition. Thus, the study recognizes that sports competition requires simultaneous coordination of various performances, quicker and effective attentional selection and fast extraction of information significant to the task.

Therefore, some of the psychological interventions provided by the study to enhance successful performance include skills assessment. The technique of this study for achieving attentional focus, performance improvement and management of anxiety through research conducted by Greene.

Ericsson, K. A. (2014). The road to excellence: The acquisition of expert performance in the arts and sciences, sports, and games. Psychology Press.
Erickson reiterates the conceptual framework of Dr. Nideffer by stating that survival of an individual in sports is dependent on the ability to shift concentration focus along various lines. For instance, an individual requires the ability shift attention internally to solve problems. Additionally, acquiring these problem-solving skills will enable an individual to recall experience and information to enable comparison with external situations. Thereafter, an individual would make the best alternative course of action with a basis on the comparisons of the perceived demand to solve a problem. The author further states that when an individual reads a book, they are likely to engross and narrow focus to respond to the change in concentration requirements. Moreover, in the case where an average individual can match the performance demands of a pressure situation, then it would not make any difference if the individual has more advanced attentional skills in one area than the other.

Weinberg, R. S., & Gould, D. (2014). Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6E. Human Kinetics.
Weinberg states that comparing the performance demand in a different range of sports illustrates the high extent of particularity in the requirement for different sports events on the human attentional resources and capacities. Therefore, because different performance situations need different levels of concentrations, it would be so obvious for researchers to develop an interest in the field. Moreover, empirical studies state that there exists a tremendous amount of information that indicates that people can shift their attentional focus along various attentional concentration. Other studies also indicate that attentional focus of individuals improves with age and that people can improve their levels of concentration with time to learn various strategies that would assist to improve performance through enhancing individual concentration.

Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Galanis, E., Zourbanos, N., & Theodorakis, Y. (2014). Self-talk and competitive sports performance. Journal of Applied Sports Psychology, 26(1), 82-95.
From the perspective of Hatzigeorgiadis, the programs for enhancing performance concentration studied by Dr. Nideffer provide coaches and sports-persons with information on the correlation between performance and arousal. Hatzigeorgiadis describes the relationship as an inverted U. Additionally; all the programs focus on the influence cognitive content has on arousal. Thus, the author states that this method is very significant in recognizing that all programs for enhancing sports performance recognize the optimal level of arousal, with problems likely to occur on either side of the optimal size. However, the author states that in most cases performance enhancement initiatives and anxiety management programs usually have limited scope.

    References
  • Ericsson, K. A. (2014). The road to excellence: The acquisition of expert performance in the arts and sciences, sports, and games. Psychology Press.
  • Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Galanis, E., Zourbanos, N., & Theodorakis, Y. (2014). Self-talk and competitive sports performance. Journal of Applied Sports Psychology, 26(1), 82-95.
  • Nideffer, R. M. (2012). Theory of attentional and personal style vs. test of attentional and interpersonal style (TAIS). Enhanced Performance Systems, 1-34.
  • Van Staden, A., Myburgh, C. P., & Poggenpoel, M. (2009). A psycho-educational model to enhance the self-development and mental health of classical dancers. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, 13(1), 20-28.
  • Weinberg, R. S., & Gould, D. (2014). Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6E. Human Kinetics.